Generic placeholder image

Current Nutrition & Food Science


ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Review Article

Wheat Bread: Potential Approach to Fortify its Lysine Content

Author(s): Neda Mollakhalili Meybodi, Leila Mirmoghtadaie, Zhaleh Sheidaei and Amir Mohammad Mortazavian*

Volume 15 , Issue 7 , 2019

Page: [630 - 637] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573401315666190228125241

Price: $65


Wheat bread is the main foodstuff and supply of dietary energy/protein in most developing countries. Wheat based diets are poor regarding essential amino acid content especially lysine as the first limiting amino acid. Since human body is unable to build lysine, it is necessary to be taken via food and/or supplements. Recommended daily intake of lysine is estimated to be around 30-64 mg/kg body weight. Inadequate intake of lysine results in a syndrome called ‘protein energy malnutrition’ which is suspected to be more prevalent in developing countries. Since lysine is provided by different sources (especially meat), there is no published data about the lack of lysine, however it is estimated to be prevalent in developing countries where the lysine-rich sources are generally expensive and low accessible there. The lysine fortification of wheat bread is conducted mainly to provide an accessible lysine-rich source. Biofortification, using lysine rich sources (either as flour or protein concentrates) and directly addition of lysine amino acid and its derivative have been investigated in different studies. The aim of this article is to review the potential strategies to improve the lysine content of wheat bread from both nutritional and technological points of view.

Keywords: Dietary energy/protein, fortification, hidden hunger, lysine, protein energy malnutrition, wheat bread.

Graphical Abstract
Organization WH. The world health report 2000: Health systems: Improving performance: World Health Organization 2000.
Nosworthy M, Tulbek M, House J. Does the concentration, isolation, or deflavoring of pea, lentil, and faba bean protein alter protein quality? Cereal Foods World 2017; 62(4): 139-42.
Smriga M, Ghosh S, Mouneimne Y, Pellett PL, Scrimshaw NS. Lysine fortification reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in Northwest Syria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101(22): 8285-8.
Galili G, Amir R. Fortifying plants with the essential amino acids lysine and methionine to improve nutritional quality. Plant Biotechnol J 2013; 11(2): 211-22.
Sihag M, Shah N, Patel A, Tanwar B, Goyal A. Advances in food fortification with essential amino acids. In: Saeid A, Ed. Food Biofortification Technologies. CRC Press Boca Raton, Florida, USA 2017; pp. 141-60.
Singh SP, Jeet R, Kumar J, et al. Comparative transcriptional profiling of two wheat genotypes, with contrasting levels of minerals in grains, shows expression differences during grain filling. PloS One 2014; 9(11)e111718
Giannou V, Kessoglou V, Tzia C. Quality and safety characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Trends Food Sci Technol 2003; 14(3): 99-108.
Cauvain SP. Breadmaking: Improving quality. Elsevier Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 2012.
Békés F, Gianibelli MC, Wrigley CW. The Gluten Proteins of the Wheat Grain in Relation to Flour Quality. In: Colin WW, Harold C, Koushik S, Jonathan F, Eds. Encyclopedia of food grains. Elsevier Oxford, United Kingdom: 2016; pp. 375-83.
Torii K, Tsurugizawa T. Brain Amino Acid Sensing: The Use of a Rodent Model of Protein-Malnutrition, Lysine Deficiency. In: Preedy VR, Ed. The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins. Academic Press UK 2016; pp. 331-40.
Millward DJ, Fereday A, Gibson NR, Pacy PJ. Human adult amino acid requirements:[1-13C] leucine balance evaluation of the efficiency of utilization and apparent requirements for wheat protein and lysine compared with those for milk protein in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72(1): 112-21.
Kroner Z. Vitamins and minerals: ABC-CLIO 2011.
Pellett PL, Ghosh S. Lysine fortification: Past, present, and future. Food Nutr Bull 2004; 25(2): 107-13.
Bressani R, Wilson D, Behar M, Chung M, Scrimshaw N. Supplementation of cereal proteins with amino acids IV. Lysine supplementation of wheat flour fed to young children at different levels of protein intake in the presence and absence of other amino acids. J Nutr 1963; 79(3): 333-9.
Volpi E, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M, Mittendorfer B, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78(2): 250-8.
Loutfy N, Mentler A, Shoeab M, Ahmed MT, Füerhacker M. Analysis and exposure assessment of some heavy metals in foodstuffs from Ismailia city, Egypt. Toxicol Environ Chem 2012; 94(1): 78-90.
Doxastakis G, Zafiriadis I, Irakli M, Marlani H, Tananaki C. Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties. Food Chem 2002; 77(2): 219-27.
Albert C, Gombos S, Salamon R, Csiki Z, Prokisch J, Csapó J. Production of highly nutritious functional food with the supplementation of wheat flour with lysine. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria 2017; 10(1): 5-20.
Sherman DM. Tending animals in the global village: A guide to international veterinary medicine. John Wiley & Sons Hoboken, NJ, United States 2007.
Martins ZE, Pinto E, Almeida AA, Pinho O, Ferreira IM. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: Impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility. Food Funct 2017; 8(5): 1979-87.
Patnaik D, Khurana P. Wheat biotechnology: A minireview. Electron J of Biotechnol 2001; 4(2): 7-8.
Gangashetty PI, Motagi BN, Pavan R, Roodagi MB. Breeding Crop Plants for Improved Human Nutrition through Biofortification: Progress and Prospects. In: Al-Khayri J, Jain S, Johnson D, Eds. Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. Springer Cham, Switzerland 2016; pp. 35-76.
Yu S, Tian L. Breeding major cereal grains through the lens of nutrition sensitivity. Mol Plant 2018; 11(1): 23-30.
Sun X, Fang R, Yu G, Zhang P, Xu L, Ma H. Transfer of high lysine gene Cflr into wheat and analysis for protein and lysine content in transgenic wheat seeds. Jiangsu J Agric Sci 2010; 26(6): 1162-9.
Pojić MM, Mastilović JS. Near infrared spectroscopy-advanced analytical tool in wheat breeding, trade, and processing. Food Bioprocess Tech 2013; 6(2): 330-52.
Vogel K, Johnson V, Mattern P. Protein and lysine content of grain, endosperm, and bran of wheats from the USDA World Wheat Collection 1. Crop Sci 1976; 16(5): 655-60.
Reyes AR, Bonin CP, Houmard NM, Huang S, Malvar TM. Genetic manipulation of lysine catabolism in maize kernels. Plant Mol Biol 2009; 69(1-2): 81-9.
Mashayekh M, Mahmoodi MR, Entezari MH. Effect of fortification of defatted soy flour on sensory and rheological properties of wheat bread. Int J Food Sci Technol 2008; 43(9): 1693-8.
Gao X-L, Chen F-S, Zhang L-F, Bu G-H, Fan M-T. Comparison of two soy globulins on the dynamic-mechanical properties of the dough and the quality of steamed bread. J Chem 2016 2016
Boye J, Zare F, Pletch A. Pulse proteins: Processing, characterization, functional properties and applications in food and feed. Food Res Int 2010; 43(2): 414-31.
Deshpande S, Rangnekar P, Sathe S, Salunkhe D. Functional properties of wheat‐bean composite flours. J Food Sci 1983; 48(6): 1659-62.
Olaoye OA, Ade-Omowaye BI. Composite flours and breads: potential of local crops in developing countries. In: Preedy VR, Watson RR, Patel VB, Eds. Flour and breads and their fortification in health and disease prevention. Elsevier Amsterdam 2011; pp. 183-92.
Fenn D, Lukow OM, Humphreys G, Fields PG, Boye JI. Wheat-legume composite flour quality. Int J Food Prop 2010; 13(2): 381-93.
Batista KA, Prudêncio SH, Fernandes KF. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard‐to‐cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.). J Food Sci 2010; 75(3)
Zhang L, Fletcher RB, Zhang X. Composition comprising glutenfree cereal flour. EP2677874A1 2013
Ahmed A, Khalid N, Ahmad A, Abbasi N, Latif M, Randhawa M. Phytochemicals and biofunctional properties of buckwheat: A review. J Agric Sci 2014; 152(3): 349-69.
Ivanovski B, Seetharaman K, Duizer LM. Development of soy‐based bread with acceptable sensory properties. J Food Sci 2012; 77(1): S71-6.
Shchekoldina T, Aider M. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making. J Food Sci Technol 2014; 51(10): 2331-43.
Paraskevopoulou A, Provatidou E, Tsotsiou D, Kiosseoglou V. Dough rheology and baking performance of wheat flour-lupin protein isolate blends. Food Res Int 2010; 43(4): 1009-16.
López EP. Influence of the addition of lupine protein isolate on the protein and technological characteristics of dough and fresh bread with added Brea Gum. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2014; 34(1): 195-203.
Mubarak A. Chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of bread supplemented with lupin seed (Lupinus albus) products. Food/Nahrung 2001; 45(4): 241-5.
Gonzalez‐Agramon M, Serna‐Saldivar S. Effect of defatted soybean and soybean isolate fortification on the nutritional, physical, chemical and sensory properties of wheat flour tortillas. J Food Sci 1988; 53(3): 793-7.
Sanz-Penella J, Wronkowska M, Soral-Smietana M, Haros M. Effect of whole amaranth flour on bread properties and nutritive value. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2013; 50(2): 679-85.
Venskutonis PR, Kraujalis P. Nutritional components of amaranth seeds and vegetables: a review on composition, properties, and uses. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2013; 12(4): 381-412.
Wijngaard H, Arendt EK. Buckwheat. Cereal Chem 2006; 83(4): 391-401.
Chlopicka J, Pasko P, Gorinstein S, Jedryas A, Zagrodzki P. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of pseudocereal breads. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2012; 46(2): 548-55.
Stikic R, Glamoclija D, Demin M, et al. Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations. J Cereal Sci 2012; 55(2): 132-8.
Bilgiçli N, İbanoğlu Ş. Effect of pseudo cereal flours on some physical, chemical and sensory properties of bread. J Food Sci Technol 2015; 52(11): 7525-9.
Idris NA. Extraction of lentil proteins and their use in supplementation of bread 1982. Available from http: //ir.library.oregonstate. edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/nc580q49t
Ugwuona FU, Suwaba S. Effects of defatted jack bean flour and jack bean protein concentrate on physicochemical and sensory properties of bread. Nigerian Food J 2013; 31(2): 25-32.
Mohammed I, Ahmed AR, Senge B. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality. J Food Sci Technol 2014; 51(9): 1902-10.
Hallén E, İbanoğlu Ş, Ainsworth P. Effect of fermented/germinated cowpea flour addition on the rheological and baking properties of wheat flour. J Food Engin 2004; 63(2): 177-84.
Turfani V, Narducci V, Durazzo A, Galli V, Carcea M. Technological, nutritional and functional properties of wheat bread enriched with lentil or carob flours. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2017; 78: 361-6.
Codină GG, Marineac AR. Todosi- Sănduleac E. The influence of lupin flour addition on bread quality. Food Environ Saf J 2017; 15(3).
Ndife J, Abdulraheem L, Zakari U. Evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of functional breads produced from whole wheat and soya bean flour blends. Afr J Food Sci 2011; 5(8): 466-72.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy