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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1389-2037
ISSN (Online): 1875-5550

Review Article

Differentiation and Proliferation of Intestinal Stem Cells and its Underlying Regulated Mechanisms during Weaning

Author(s): Xi Chen, Zehong Yang, Huiling Hu, Wentao Duan, Aiping Wang, Yanbin Dong, Weihang Gao, Song Deng, Bo Cheng, Jiali Li, Nannan Sun, Zhibin Cheng*, Wenfeng Guo*, Yanwu Li* and Yong Gao*

Volume 20 , Issue 7 , 2019

Page: [690 - 695] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1389203720666190125101834

Price: $65

Abstract

Weaning is a stressful event associated with gastrointestinal disorders and increased disease susceptibility. Many studies have reported the changes that happened in the gut of various mammals such as pigs and rats after weaning. These findings suggest that the development of intestinal tract mainly is affected at the time of weaning through interfering in the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells. Weaning stress stimulates the rapid differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells in order to adjust to changes caused by weaning, which are mainly manifested as deeper crypt depth and decreased intestine villus height. However, the accelerated cellular process may lead to an increase in the proportion of immature intestinal epithelial cells and goblet cells, which affect intestinal permeability and reduce the gut-barrier function against toxins and pathogens. This review briefly describes the effects coforticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and polyamines on the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells after weaning and discusses its possible underlying regulatory mechanisms. Firstly, weaning stress activates CRF to binds its receptors, which induces proinflammatory responses and promote rapid differentiation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells to a larger fraction of immature intestinal epithelial cells and goblet cells. Secondly, the lack of EGF after weaning inhibits the expression of goblet cell maturation factors and makes it difficult for goblet cells and intestinal epithelial cells to mature. Finally, diet and endogenous synthesis lead to excessive polyamines in the intestine, which promote the proliferation of intestinal stem cells by regulating the expression of human antigen R (HuR) and other related genes at the time of weaning.

Keywords: Intestinal stem cells, weaning, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), polyamines, mammals.

Graphical Abstract
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