Generic placeholder image

Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

General Review Article

Monocyte as an Emerging Tool for Targeted Drug Delivery: A Review

Author(s): Fakhara Sabir, Rai K. Farooq, Asim.ur.Rehman and Naveed Ahmed*

Volume 24 , Issue 44 , 2018

Page: [5296 - 5312] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190102104642

Price: $65

Abstract

Monocytes are leading component of the mononuclear phagocytic system that play a key role in phagocytosis and removal of several kinds of microbes from the body. Monocytes are bone marrow precursor cells that stay in the blood for a few days and migrate towards tissues where they differentiate into macrophages. Monocytes can be used as a carrier for delivery of active agents into tissues, where other carriers have no significant access. Targeting monocytes is possible both through passive and active targeting, the former one is simply achieved by enhanced permeation and retention effect while the later one by attachment of ligands on the surface of the lipid-based particulate system. Monocytes have many receptors e.g., mannose, scavenger, integrins, cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). The ligands used against these receptors are peptides, lectins, antibodies, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. This review encloses extensive introduction of monocytes as a suitable carrier system for drug delivery, the design of lipid-based carrier system, possible ways for delivery of therapeutics to monocytes, and the role of monocytes in the treatment of life compromising diseases such as cancer, inflammation, stroke, etc.

Keywords: Monocytes, active targeting, ligands, monocyte delivery, lipid carrier system, receptors, peptides.

[1]
Locatelli G, Theodorou D, Kendirli A, et al. Mononuclear phagocytes locally specify and adapt their phenotype in a multiple sclerosis model. Nat Neurosci 2018; 21(9): 1196-208.
[2]
Auffray C, Sieweke MH, Geissmann F. Blood monocytes: development, heterogeneity, and relationship with dendritic cells. Annu Rev Immunol 2009; 27: 669-92.
[3]
Ziegler-Heitbrock L, Ancuta P, Crowe S, et al. Nomenclature of monocytes and dendritic cells in blood. Blood 2010; 74-80.
[4]
Meissner F, Seger RA, Moshous D, Fischer A, Reichenbach J, Zychlinsky A. Inflammasome activation in NADPH oxidase defective mononuclear phagocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Blood 2010; 116(9): 1570-3.
[5]
Camilli G, Eren E, Williams DL, Aimanianda V, Meunier E, Quintin J. Impaired phagocytosis directs human monocyte activation in response to fungal derived β‐glucan particles. Eur J Immunol 2018; 48(5): 757-70.
[6]
Wang X-S, Zhang Z, Wang H-C, et al. Rapid identification of UCA1 as a very sensitive and specific unique marker for human bladder carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12(16): 4851-8.
[7]
Lucchesi D, Popa SG, Sancho V, et al. Influence of high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels on circulating monocytic angiogenic cells functions in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018; 17(1): 78.
[8]
Kho S, Minigo G, Andries B, et al. Circulating neutrophil extracellular traps and neutrophil activation are increased in proportion to disease severity in human malaria. J Infect Dis 2018; 1-44.
[9]
Merino KM, Allers C, Didier ES, Kuroda MJ. Role of monocyte/macrophages during HIV/SIV infection in adult and pediatric acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Front Immunol 2017; 8: 16.
[10]
Arfvidsson J, Ahlin F, Vargas KG, Thaler B, Wojta J, Huber K. Monocyte subsets in myocardial infarction: A review. Int J Cardiol 2017; 231: 47-53.
[11]
Varol C, Yona S, Jung S. Origins and tissue-context-dependent fates of blood monocytes. Immunol Cell Biol 2009; 87(1): 30.
[12]
Pang L, Qin J, Han L, et al. Exploiting macrophages as targeted carrier to guide nanoparticles into glioma. Oncotarget 2016; 7(24): 37081-91.
[13]
Wang S, Wu Y. The role of chemokines in mesenchymal stromal cell homing to sites of inflammation, including infarcted myocardium. The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells 2017; pp. 314-22.
[14]
Singh G, Nassri A, Kim D, Zhu H, Ramzan Z. Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio can predict mortality in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2017; 8(1): 60.
[15]
Serbina NV, Cherny M, Shi C, et al. Distinct responses of human monocyte subsets to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. J Immunol 2009; 183(4): 2678-87.
[16]
Nockher WA, Scherberich JE. Expanded CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subpopulation in patients with acute and chronic infections undergoing hemodialysis. Infect Immun 1998; 66(6): 2782-90.
[17]
Patel AA, Zhang Y, Fullerton JN, et al. The fate and lifespan of human monocyte subsets in steady state and systemic inflammation. J Exp Med 2017; 214(7): 1913-23.
[18]
Wolf Y, Shemer A, Polonsky M, et al. Autonomous TNF is critical for in vivo monocyte survival in steady state and inflammation. J Exp Med 2017; 214(4): 905-17.
[19]
Li H, Tu Z. The Role of Monocytes/Macrophages in HBV and HCV Infection. Biology of Myelomonocytic Cells: InTech; 2017.
[20]
Ancuta P, Liu K-Y, Misra V, et al. Transcriptional profiling reveals developmental relationship and distinct biological functions of CD16+ and CD16-monocyte subsets. BMC Genomics 2009; 10(1): 403.
[21]
Ziegler-Heitbrock L. The CD14+ CD16+ blood monocytes: their role in infection and inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2007; 81(3): 584-92.
[22]
Shaji J, Lal M. Nanocarriers for targeting in inflammation. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013; 6(3): 3-12.
[23]
Kelly C, Jefferies C, Cryan S-A. Targeted liposomal drug delivery to monocytes and macrophages. J Drug Deliv 2011; 2011: 11.
[24]
Heidenreich S. Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. J Leukoc Biol 1999; 65(6): 737-43.
[25]
Raghu H, Lepus CM, Wang Q, et al. CCL2/CCR2, but not CCL5/CCR5, mediates monocyte recruitment, inflammation and cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(5): 914-22.
[26]
Tsukamoto M, Seta N, Yoshimoto K, Suzuki K, Yamaoka K, Takeuchi T. CD14 bright CD16+ intermediate monocytes are induced by interleukin-10 and positively correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2017; 19(1): 28.
[27]
Vazquez-Sanchez T, Caballero A, Ruiz-Esteban P, et al. Increase in proinflammatory CD14++ CD16+ monocytes in samples from aspiration cytology compared with peripheral blood in kidney transplant patients with borderline rejection. Transplantation 2018; 102: 57.
[28]
Johansson J, Tabor V, Wikell A, Jalkanen S, Fuxe J. TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition promotes monocyte/macrophage properties in breast cancer cells. Front Oncol 2015; 5: 1-3.
[29]
Dhanda A, Williams E, Yates E, Collins P, Lee R, Cramp M. Intermediate (CD14++ CD16+) monocytes from patients with acute severe alcoholic hepatitis are activated and functionally similar to classical (CD14++ CD16−) monocytes. J Hepatol 2017; 66(1): 346.
[30]
Bouhlel MA, Derudas B, Rigamonti E, et al. PPARγ activation primes human monocytes into alternative M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory properties. Cell Metab 2007; 6(2): 137-43.
[31]
Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol 2001; 2(8): 675.
[32]
Yao Q, Liu J, Zhang Z, et al. PPARγ induces the gene expression of integrin ανβ5 to promote macrophage M2 polarization. J Biol Chem 2018; 1-24.
[33]
Chieppa M, Bianchi G, Doni A, et al. Cross-linking of the mannose receptor on monocyte-derived dendritic cells activates an anti-inflammatory immunosuppressive program. J Immunol 2003; 171(9): 4552-60.
[34]
Maeda H, Sawa T, Konno T. Mechanism of tumor-targeted delivery of macromolecular drugs, including the EPR effect in solid tumor and clinical overview of the prototype polymeric drug SMANCS. J Control Release 2001; 74(1): 47-61.
[35]
Iyer AK, Khaled G, Fang J, Maeda H. Exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect for tumor targeting. Drug Discov Today 2006; 11(17): 812-8.
[36]
Pirollo KF, Chang EH. Does a targeting ligand influence nanoparticle tumor localization or uptake? Trends Biotechnol 2008; 26(10): 552-8.
[37]
Danhier F, Feron O, Préat V. To exploit the tumor microenvironment: passive and active tumor targeting of nanocarriers for anti-cancer drug delivery. J Control Release 2010; 148(2): 135-46.
[38]
Adams GP, Schier R, McCall AM, et al. High affinity restricts the localization and tumor penetration of single-chain fv antibody molecules. Cancer Res 2001; 61(12): 4750-5.
[39]
Gosk S, Moos T, Gottstein C, Bendas G. VCAM-1 directed immunoliposomes selectively target tumor vasculature in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2008; 1778(4): 854-63.
[40]
Allen TM. Ligand-targeted therapeutics in anticancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2(10): 750.
[41]
Nobs L, Buchegger F, Gurny R, Allémann E. Current methods for attaching targeting ligands to liposomes and nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci 2004; 93(8): 1980-92.
[42]
Puri A, Loomis K, Smith B, et al. Lipid-based nanoparticles as pharmaceutical drug carriers: from concepts to clinic. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2009; 26(6): 523-80.
[43]
Torchilin VP. Drug targeting. Eur J Pharm Sci 2000; 11: 81-91.
[44]
Torchilin V, Levchenko T, Lukyanov A, et al. p-Nitrophenylcarbonyl-PEG-PE-liposomes: fast and simple attachment of specific ligands, including monoclonal antibodies, to distal ends of PEG chains via p-nitrophenylcarbonyl groups. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2001; 1511(2): 397-411.
[45]
Nelson SM, Ferguson LR, Denny WA. Non-covalent ligand/DNA interactions: minor groove binding agents. Mutat Res 2007; 623(1): 24-40.
[46]
Pan C-x, Zhang H, Lam KS, Aina OH. Bladder cancer specific ligand peptides. Google Patents 2017.
[47]
Suga T, Fuchigami Y, Hagimori M, Kawakami S. Ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes using HER2 targeted peptide-lipid derivatives for targeted delivery in breast cancer cells: The effect of serine-glycine repeated peptides as a spacer. Int J Pharm 2017; 521(1): 361-4.
[48]
Wang J, Masehi-Lano JJ, Chung EJ. Peptide and antibody ligands for renal targeting: nanomedicine strategies for kidney disease. Biomater Sci 2017; 5(8): 1450-9.
[49]
Grewal I, Gresser M, Khare S, Syed R. Engineered TAA antibody-TNFSF member ligand fusion molecules. Google Patents 2017.
[50]
Mosaheb MM, Reiser ML, Wetzler LM. Toll-like receptor ligand-Based Vaccine adjuvants require intact MyD88 signaling in antigen-Presenting cells for germinal center Formation and antibody Production. Front Immunol 2017; 8: 225.
[51]
Hyun JY, Park CW, Liu Y, et al. Carbohydrate analogue microarrays for identification of lectin‐selective ligands. ChemBioChem 2017; 18(12): 1077-82.
[52]
Daeihamed M, Dadashzadeh S, Haeri A, Faghih Akhlaghi M. Potential of liposomes for enhancement of oral drug absorption. Curr Drug Deliv 2017; 14(2): 289-303.
[53]
Alonso MJ. Nanomedicines for overcoming biological barriers. Biomed Pharmacother 2004; 58(3): 168-72.
[54]
Naz K, Fatima Q-U-A, Ahmed N, Shahnaz G, Khan GM. Nanoworld: Recent advances based on nanomedicine for diagnosis and lung cancer therapy. J Colloid Sci Biotech 2015; 4(1): 1-13.
[55]
Fine-Shamir N, Beig A, Zur M, Lindley D, Miller JM, Dahan A. Toward successful cyclodextrin based solubility-enabling formulations for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs: solubility–permeability trade-off, biorelevant dissolution, and the unstirred water layer. Mol Pharm 2017; 14(6): 2138-46.
[56]
Wang AZ, Gu F, Zhang L, et al. Biofunctionalized targeted nanoparticles for therapeutic applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2008; 8(8): 1063-70.
[57]
Torchilin VP. Passive and active drug targeting: drug delivery to tumors as an example Drug Delivery. Springer 2010; pp. 3-53.
[58]
Torchilin VP. Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2005; 4(2): 145-60.
[59]
Fenske DB, Cullis PR. Liposomal nanomedicines. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2008; 5(1): 25-44.
[60]
Patravale VB, Desai PP, Mapara SS. Lipid Nanocarriers for Advanced Therapeutic Applications Multifunctional Nanocarriers for Contemporary Healthcare Applications. IGI Global 2018; pp. 85-128.
[61]
Florence A. Liposomes in drug delivery. Routledge 2017.
[62]
Patil YP, Jadhav S. Novel methods for liposome preparation. Chem Phys Lipids 2014; 177: 8-18.
[63]
Allen TM, Cullis PR. Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2013; 65(1): 36-48.
[64]
Sala M, Miladi K, Agusti G, Elaissari A, Fessi H. Preparation of liposomes: A comparative study between the double solvent displacement and the conventional ethanol injection—From laboratory scale to large scale. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2017; 524: 71-8.
[65]
Hafez IM, Cullis PR. Roles of lipid polymorphism in intracellular delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001; 47(2): 139-48.
[66]
Płaczek M, Wątróbska-Świetlikowska D, Stefanowicz-Hajduk J, Drechsler M, Ochocka JR, Sznitowska M. Comparison of the in vitro cytotoxicity among phospholipid-based parenteral drug delivery systems: Emulsions, liposomes and aqueous lecithin dispersions (WLDs). Eur J Pharm Sci 2019; 127: 92-101.
[67]
Epstein-Barash H, Gutman D, Markovsky E, et al. Physicochemical parameters affecting liposomal bisphosphonates bioactivity for restenosis therapy: internalization, cell inhibition, activation of cytokines and complement, and mechanism of cell death. J Control Release 2010; 146(2): 182-95.
[68]
Lütgebaucks C, Macias-Romero C, Roke S. Characterization of the interface of binary mixed DOPC: DOPS liposomes in water: The impact of charge condensation. J Chem Phys 2017; 146(4): 044701.
[69]
Daraee H, Etemadi A, Kouhi M, Alimirzalu S, Akbarzadeh A. Application of liposomes in medicine and drug delivery. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016; 44(1): 381-91.
[70]
Niculescu-Duvaz D, Heyes J, Springer CJ. Structure-activity relationship in cationic lipid mediated gene transfection. Curr Med Chem 2003; 10(14): 1233-61.
[71]
Bunker A, Magarkar A, Viitala T. Rational design of liposomal drug delivery systems, a review: combined experimental and computational studies of lipid membranes, liposomes and their PEGylation. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2016; 1858(10): 2334-52.
[72]
Pramanik SK, Losada-Pérez P, Reekmans G, et al. Physicochemical characterizations of functional hybrid liposomal nanocarriers formed using photo-sensitive lipids. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 46-257.
[73]
Chechetka SA, Yu Y, Zhen X, Pramanik M, Pu K, Miyako E. Light-driven liquid metal nanotransformers for biomedical theranostics. Nat Commun 2017; 8: 15-432.
[74]
Puri A, Kramer-Marek G, Campbell-Massa R, et al. HER2-specific affibody-conjugated thermosensitive liposomes (Affisomes) for improved delivery of anticancer agents. J Liposome Res 2008; 18(4): 293-307.
[75]
Schubert MA, Muller-Goymann CC. Characterisation of surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): influence of lecithin and nonionic emulsifier. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2005; 61(1-2): 77-86.
[76]
Wissing SA, Muller RH. The influence of solid lipid nanoparticles on skin hydration and viscoelasticity--in vivo study. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2003; 56(1): 67-72.
[77]
Makled S, Nafee N, Boraie N. Nebulized solid lipid nanoparticles for the potential treatment of pulmonary hypertension via targeted delivery of phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor. Int J Pharm 2017; 517(1): 312-21.
[78]
Tekade RK, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Chougule MB. Solid lipid nanoparticles for targeting and delivery of drugs and genes. Nanotechnology-Based Approaches for Targeting and Delivery of Drugs and Genes 2017; p. 256.
[79]
Kotmakçı M, Akbaba H, Erel G, Ertan G, Kantarcı G. Improved method for solid lipid nanoparticle preparation based on hot microemulsions: preparation, characterization, cytotoxicity, and hemocompatibility evaluation. AAPS PharmSciTech 2017; 18(4): 1355-65.
[80]
Arora R, Katiyar SS, Kushwah V, Jain S. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carrier-based nanotherapeutics in treatment of psoriasis: a comparative study. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2017; 14(2): 165-77.
[81]
Behbahani ES, Ghaedi M, Abbaspour M, Rostamizadeh K. Optimization and characterization of ultrasound assisted preparation of curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Application of central composite design, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. Ultrason Sonochem 2017; 38: 271-80.
[82]
Ganesan P, Narayanasamy D. Lipid nanoparticles: different preparation techniques, characterization, hurdles, and strategies for the production of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers for oral drug delivery. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy 2017; 6: 37-56.
[83]
Stella B, Marengo A, Arpicco S. Nanoparticles: an overview of the preparation methods from preformed polymers. Istituto Lombardo-Accademia di Scienze e Lettere-Incontri di Studio 2017; pp. 1-12.
[84]
Klauber TC, Laursen JM, Zucker D, Brix S, Jensen SS, Andresen TL. Delivery of TLR7 agonist to monocytes and dendritic cells by DCIR targeted liposomes induces robust production of anti-cancer cytokines. Acta Biomater 2017; 53: 367-77.
[85]
Beg S, Jain S, Kushwah V, et al. Novel surface-engineered solid lipid nanoparticles of rosuvastatin calcium for low-density lipoprotein-receptor targeting: a quality by design-driven perspective. Nanomedicine 2017; 12(4): 333-56.
[86]
Schubert MA, Harms M, Muller-Goymann CC. Structural investigations on lipid nanoparticles containing high amounts of lecithin. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006; 27(2-3): 226-36.
[87]
Tapeinos C, Battaglini M, Ciofani G. Advances in the design of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting brain diseases. J Control Release 2017.
[88]
Wissing S, Kayser O, Müller R. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004; 56(9): 1257-72.
[89]
Vyas S, Kannan M, Jain S, Mishra V, Singh P. Design of liposomal aerosols for improved delivery of rifampicin to alveolar macrophages. Int J Pharm 2004; 269(1): 37-49.
[90]
Zaki NM, Tirelli N. Gateways for the intracellular access of nanocarriers: a review of receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanisms and of strategies in receptor targeting. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2010; 7(8): 895-913.
[91]
Schöler N, Olbrich C, Tabatt K, Müller R, Hahn H, Liesenfeld O. Surfactant, but not the size of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) influences viability and cytokine production of macrophages. Int J Pharm 2001; 221(1-2): 57-67.
[92]
Botto C, Mauro N, Amore E, Martorana E, Giammona G, Bondì ML. Surfactant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2017; 516(1): 334-41.
[93]
Vijayanand P, Jyothi V, Aditya N, Mounika A. Development and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles containing herbal extract: in vivo antidepressant activity. J Drug Deliv 2018; 2018: 1-7.
[94]
Kawakami K, Miyazaki A, Fukushima M, et al. Physicochemical properties of solid phospholipid particles as a drug delivery platform for improving oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs. Pharm Res 2017; 34(1): 208-16.
[95]
Younas N, Rashid MA, Usman M, et al. Solubilization of Ni imidazole complex in micellar media of anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium stearate. J Surfactants Deterg 2017; 20(6): 1311-20.
[96]
Chanput W, Mes JJ, Wichers HJ. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach. Int Immunopharmacol 2014; 23(1): 37-45.
[97]
Sarangi PP, Chakraborty P, Dash SP, et al. Cell adhesion protein fibulin-7 and its C-terminal fragment negatively regulate monocyte and macrophage migration and functions in vitro and in vivo. FASEB J 2018; 1(1): 1-10.
[98]
Bonifaz L, Bonnyay D, Mahnke K, Rivera M, Nussenzweig MC, Steinman RM. Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I products and peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance. J Exp Med 2002; 196(12): 1627-38.
[99]
Van Broekhoven CL, Parish CR, Demangel C, Britton WJ, Altin JG. Targeting dendritic cells with antigen-containing liposomes: a highly effective procedure for induction of antitumor immunity and for tumor immunotherapy. Cancer Res 2004; 64(12): 4357-65.
[100]
Chono S, Tauchi Y, Deguchi Y, Morimoto K. Efficient drug delivery to atherosclerotic lesions and the antiatherosclerotic effect by dexamethasone incorporated into liposomes in atherogenic mice. J Drug Target 2005; 13(4): 267-76.
[101]
Rahman M, Beg S, Verma A, et al. Therapeutic applications of liposomal based drug delivery and drug targeting for immune linked inflammatory maladies: a contemporary view point. Curr Drug Targets 2017; 18(13): 1558-71.
[102]
Elhissi A, Faizi M, Naji W, Gill H, Taylor K. Physical stability and aerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novel micropump device with large mesh apertures. Int J Pharm 2007; 334(1-2): 62-70.
[103]
Gibbons AM, McElvaney NG, Taggart CC, Cryan S-A. Delivery of rSLPI in a liposomal carrier for inhalation provides protection against cathepsin L degradation. J Microencapsul 2009; 26(6): 513-22.
[104]
Costa A, Sarmento B, Seabra V. Mannose-functionalized solid lipid nanoparticles are effective in targeting alveolar macrophages. Eur J Pharm Sci 2018; 114: 103-13.
[105]
Jain A, Agarwal A, Majumder S, et al. Mannosylated solid lipid nanoparticles as vectors for site-specific delivery of an anti-cancer drug. J Control Release 2010; 148(3): 359-67.
[106]
Maretti E, Costantino L, Rustichelli C, et al. Surface engineering of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle assemblies by methyl α-d-mannopyranoside for the active targeting to macrophages in anti-tuberculosis inhalation therapy. Int J Pharm 2017; 528(1-2): 440-51.
[107]
González-Juarrero M, O’Sullivan MP. Optimization of inhaled therapies for tuberculosis: the role of macrophages and dendritic cells. Tuberculosis 2011; 91(1): 86-92.
[108]
Kharaji MH, Doroud D, Taheri T, Rafati S. Drug targeting to macrophages with solid lipid nanoparticles harboring paromomycin: an in vitro evaluation against L. major and L. tropica. AAPS PharmSciTech 2016; 17(5): 1110-9.
[109]
Sundar S, Jha T, Thakur CP, Sinha PK, Bhattacharya SK. Injectable paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis in India. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(25): 2571-81.
[110]
Töyräs A, Ollikainen J, Taskinen M, Mönkkönen J. Inhibition of mevalonate pathway is involved in alendronate-induced cell growth inhibition, but not in cytokine secretion from macrophages in vitro. Eur J Pharm Sci 2003; 19(4): 223-30.
[111]
Weers J. Lipid-based compositions of antiinfectives for treating pulmonary infections and methods of use thereof. Google Patents 2017.
[112]
Kumar L, Verma S, Prasad DN, Bhardwaj A, Vaidya B, Jain AK. Nanotechnology: a magic bullet for HIV AIDS treatment. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2015; 43(2): 71-86.
[113]
Salem II, Düzgünes N. Efficacies of cyclodextrin-complexed and liposome-encapsulated clarithromycin against mycobacterium avium complex infection in human macrophages. Int J Pharm 2003; 250(2): 403-14.
[114]
Sperduto PW, Yang TJ, Beal K, et al. Estimating survival in patients with lung cancer and brain metastases: an update of the graded prognostic assessment for lung cancer using molecular markers (Lung-molGPA). JAMA Oncol 2017; 3(6): 827-31.
[115]
Kessenbrock K, Plaks V, Werb Z. Matrix metalloproteinases: regulators of the tumor microenvironment. Cell 2010; 141(1): 52-67.
[116]
Askoxylakis V, Arvanitis CD, Wong CS, Ferraro GB, Jain RK. Emerging strategies for delivering antiangiogenic therapies to primary and metastatic brain tumors. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2017; 119: 159-74.
[117]
Lorusso D, Bria E, Costantini A, Di Maio M, Rosti G, Mancuso A. Patients’ perception of chemotherapy side effects: expectations, doctor–patient communication and impact on quality of life–An Italian survey. Eur J Cancer Care 2017; 26(2)
[118]
Zhang JJ, Kadir TN, Silva RM. et al Effects of engineered silver nanoparticle size in pulmonary inflammation, cytokine/chemokine release and macrophage phenotype expression over time. B58 Occupational Lung Disease: Case Studies, Epidemiology, and Mechanisms: Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017. . p. A3854-A
[119]
Nardin A, Lefebvre M, Labroquere K, Faure O, Abastado J. Liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine: targeting and activating macrophages for adjuvant treatment of osteosarcoma. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006; 6(2): 123-33.
[120]
Eue I. Growth inhibition of human mammary carcinoma by liposomal hexadecylphosphocholine: participation of activated macrophages in the antitumor mechanism. Int J Cancer 2001; 92(3): 426-33.
[121]
Drewry LL, Sibley LD. Toxoplasma gondii infection reprograms monocyte adherence and motility. The FASEB Journal 2017. 31(1 Supplement): 776.9-.9.
[122]
Park K. Trojan monocytes for improved drug delivery to the brain. Elsevier 2008.
[123]
Liu T, van Rooijen N, Tracey DJ. Depletion of macrophages reduces axonal degeneration and hyperalgesia following nerve injury. Pain 2000; 86(1): 25-32.
[124]
Sanford DE, Belt BA, Panni RZ, et al. Inflammatory monocyte mobilization decreases patient survival in pancreatic cancer: a role for targeting the CCL2/CCR2 axis. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19(13): 3404-15.
[125]
Davignon J-L, Hayder M, Baron M, et al. Targeting monocytes/macrophages in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2012; 52(4): 590-8.
[126]
Richards P, Williams B, Williams A. Suppression of chronic streptococcal cell wall‐induced arthritis in Lewis rats by liposomal clodronate. Rheumatology 2001; 40(9): 978-87.
[127]
Thurlings RM, Wijbrandts CA, Bennink RJ, et al. Monocyte scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis: the dynamics of monocyte migration in immune-mediated inflammatory disease. PLoS One 2009; 4(11): e7865.
[128]
Brühl H, Cihak J, Plachý J, et al. Targeting of Gr‐1+, CCR2+ monocytes in collagen‐induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2007; 56(9): 2975-85.
[129]
Kawanaka N, Yamamura M, Aita T, et al. CD14+, CD16+ blood monocytes and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2002; 46(10): 2578-86.
[130]
Saiyed ZM, Gandhi NH, Nair MP. Magnetic nanoformulation of azidothymidine 5′-triphosphate for targeted delivery across the blood–brain barrier. Int J Nanomedicine 2010; 5: 157.
[131]
Philips JA, Rubin EJ, Perrimon N. Drosophila RNAi screen reveals CD36 family member required for mycobacterial infection. Science 2005; 309(5738): 1251-3.
[132]
Becattini S, Littmann ER, Carter RA, et al. Commensal microbes provide first line defense against Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Exp Med 2017; 214(7): 1973-89.
[133]
Dinner S, Kaltschmidt J, Stump-Guthier C, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are required for effective infection of human choroid plexus epithelial cells by listeria monocytogenes. Microbes Infect 2017; 19(1): 18-33.
[134]
Shi C, Pamer EG. Monocyte recruitment during infection and inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 2011; 11(11): 762-74.
[135]
Serbina NV, Salazar-Mather TP, Biron CA, Kuziel WA, Pamer EG. TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells mediate innate immune defense against bacterial infection. Immunity 2003; 19(1): 59-70.
[136]
Demers A. McNICOLL N, Febbraio M, et al Identification of the growth hormone-releasing peptide binding site in CD36: a photoaffinity cross-linking study. Biochem J 2004; 382(2): 417-24.
[137]
Ghattas A, Griffiths HR, Devitt A, Lip GY, Shantsila E. Monocytes in coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis: where are we now? J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62(17): 1541-51.
[138]
Palframan RT, Jung S, Cheng G, et al. Inflammatory chemokine transport and presentation in HEV. J Exp Med 2001; 194(9): 1361-74.
[139]
Geissmann F, Jung S, Littman DR. Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Immunity 2003; 19(1): 71-82.
[140]
e Silva KSF The multifaceted role of genetic polymorphisms in atherosclerosis 2018; 1(1): 1-5.
[141]
Barnes PJ. New treatments for COPD. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2002; 1(6): 437-46.
[142]
Aldonyte R, Jansson L, Piitulainen E, Janciauskiene S. Circulating monocytes from healthy individuals and COPD patients. Respir Res 2003; 4(1): 11.
[143]
Joos L, Pare PD, Sandford AJ. Genetic risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Swiss Med Wkly 2002; 132(3-4): 27-37.
[144]
Hume DA, Ross IL, Himes SR, Sasmono RT, Wells CA, Ravasi T. The mononuclear phagocyte system revisited. J Leukoc Biol 2002; 72(4): 621-7.
[145]
Traves S, Culpitt S, Russell R, Barnes P, Donnelly L. Increased levels of the chemokines GROα and MCP-1 in sputum samples from patients with COPD. Thorax 2002; 57(7): 590-5.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy