Skeletal muscle is a highly-specialized tissue that is capable of contractile function and able to withstand and adapt to daily mechanical and physiological stress. Musculoskeletal disorders, including muscular dystrophies, result in chronic pain and disability, reduced quality of life, burden on family, and increased healthcare costs. Although several mechanisms have been identified for muscle injury and regeneration, mechanisms of these diseases are poorly understood, and targeted and effective pharmacologic treatment(s) are not available. More research is needed in this area in order to develop effective treatment regimens. The purpose of this review is to discuss known mechanisms of muscle injury and repair, and highlight some recent patents and research developments for treatment of skeletal muscle disorders.