Generic placeholder image

Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery


ISSN (Print): 1574-891X
ISSN (Online): 2212-4071

Review Article

Amarogentin as Topical Anticancer and Anti-Infective Potential: Scope of Lipid Based Vesicular in its Effective Delivery

Author(s): Kanika Patel, Vikas Kumar, Amita Verma, Mahfoozur Rahman* and Dinesh K. Patel*

Volume 14 , Issue 1 , 2019

Page: [7 - 15] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1574891X13666180913154355

Price: $65


There is a need for the development of liposomes based nanomedicines formulation for better efficacy and safety of the available drugs in the market. Liposomes have various applications in the field of pharmaceutical and medical field for their drug target potential, diagnostic importance and imaging techniques. Natural plant based drugs and their derivatives have been used in the medicine, nutraceuticals, perfumery, cosmetic and beverages industry. More than half of the prescribed drugs in the worldwide are mainly derived from different natural sources. Development of plant derived product is an emerging field of food, pharmaceutical and health industries. Plants belonging to the Gentianaecae family are well known for their bitter taste and Swertia chirata is one of best plants among them. Various active phytochemical of Swertia chirata are bitter secoiridoids like gentiopicroside, amarogentin, swertiamarin, isovitexin and isogentisin. People use different species of Swertia in the form of decoction, infusion, paste and juice for the treatment of fever and enteric diseases. Swertia chirata possesses anticarcinogenic, antioxidative, hypoglycemic, antihepatotoxic, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Amarogentin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside present in Swertia chirata plant is an activator of human bitter taste receptor. Pharmacologically, amarogentin has antibacterial, antihepatitis, anticholinergic and chemopreventive activities, moreover, amarogentin has been proven for their anti-lieshmanial activity. Other studies also suggested that amarogentin acts on liver carcinogenesis, skin carcinogenesis and reduced tumour progression. In the present review, we have collected and compiled the data regarding biological sources, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, anticancer and anti-infective potential of amarogentin. For better understanding of various aspects of amarogentin, we have also discussed Swertia chirayita in a very concise manner. Further data related to various patents on amarogentin have also been discussed in this manuscript. However, we also admit that new advance biological research will also increase the medicinal and pharmacological value of amarogentin. Information regarding the chemistry of amarogentin, its biological sources, bioavailability as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and management of skin disorders and various forms of cancers will be beneficial to the scientists in the medicinal field.

Keywords: Amarogentin, analytical aspects, ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, skin disorders, Swertia chirayita.

Graphical Abstract
Rahman M, Kumar V, Beg S, Sharma G, Katare OP, Anwar F. Emergence of liposome as targeted magic bullet for inflammatory disorders: Current state of the art. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016; 44(7): 1597-608.
Rahman M, Beg S, Verma A, Kazmi I, Patel DK, Anwar F, et al. Therapeutic applications of liposomal based drug delivery and drug targeting for immune linked inflammatory maladies: A contemporary view point. Curr Drug Targets 2017; 18(13): 1558-71.
Patel K, Patel DK. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of hispidulin: A concise report. J Tradit Complement Med 2017; 7(3): 360-6.
Patel K, Patel DK. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of ricinine: A concise report. J Coast Life Med 2016; 4: 663-7.
Patel K, Mishra R, Patel DK. A review on phytopharmaceutical importance of asiaticoside. J Coast Life Med 2016; 4: 1000-7.
Kesavan R, Potunuru UR, Nastasijevic B, Avaneesh T, Joksić G, Dixit M. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts. PLoS One 2013; 8e61393
Kavitha KN, Dattatri AN. An evaluation of antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract of Swertia chirata in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2015; 6: 620-5.
Khanal S, Shakya N, Thapa K, Pant DR. Phytochemical investigation of crude methanol extracts of different species of swertia from Nepal. BMC Res Notes 2015; 8: 821.
Shukla S, Bafna K, Sundar D, Thorat SS. The bitter barricading of prostaglandin biosynthesis pathway: Understanding the molecular mechanism of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition by amarogentin, a secoiridoid glycoside from Swertia chirayita. PLoS One 2014; 9e90637
Kumar V, Staden VJ. A review of Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae) as a traditional medicinal plant. Front Pharmacol 2016; 6: 308.
Das SC, Bhadra S, Roy S, Saha SK, Islam MS, Bachar SC. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic root extract of Swertia chirata (Gentianaceae). Jordan J Biol Sci 2012; 5: 31-6.
Kumar V, Chandra S. LC-ESI/MS determination of xanthone and secoiridoid glycosides from in vitro regenerated and in vivo Swertia chirayita. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2015; 21: 51-60.
Kavitha KN, Dattatri AN. Experimental evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Swertia chirata – aqueous extract. J Pub Heal Med Res 2013; 1: 71-5.
Pal D, Sur S, Mandal S, Das A, Roy A, Das S, et al. Prevention of liver carcinogenesis by amarogentin through modulation of G1/S cell cycle check point and induction of apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 2012; 33: 2424-31.
Zhao JG, Zhang L, Xiang XJ, Yu F, Ye WL, Wu DP, et al. Amarogentin secoiridoid inhibits in vivo cancer cell growth in xenograft mice model and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells (SNU-16) through G2/M cell cycle arrest and PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. J BUON 2016; 21: 1332.
Huang C, Li R, Zhang Y, Gong J. Amarogentin induces apoptosis of liver cancer cells via upregulation of p53 and downregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in mice. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2017; 16(5): 546-58.
Sur S, Pal D, Banerjee K, Mandal S, Das A, Roy A, et al. Amarogentin regulates self renewal pathways to restrict liver carcinogenesis in experimental mouse model. Mol Carcinog 2016; 55: 1138-49.
Saha P, Mandal S, Das A, Das S. Amarogentin can reduce hyperproliferation by downregulation of Cox-II and upregulation of apoptosis in mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Cancer Lett 2006; 244: 252-9.
Li YL, Li QX, Liu RJ, Shen XQ. Chinese medicine amygdalin and β-glucosidase combined with antibody enzymatic prodrug system as a feasible antitumor therapy. Chin J Integr Med 2018; 24(3): 237-40.
Basu MK. Liposomal delivery of antileishmanial agents. J Appl Res 2005; 5: 221-36.
Saha P, Das S. Highlighting the anti-carcinogenic potential of an ayurvedic medicinal plant Swertia chirata. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2010; 11: 1445-9.
Saha P, Mandal S, Das A, Das PC, Das S. Evaluation of the anticarcinogenic activity of Swertia chirata Buch.Ham, an Indian medicinal plant, on DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Phytother Res 2004; 18: 373-8.
Chance ML. The six diseases of WHO: Leishmaniasis. Br Med J 1981; 283: 1245-7.
Ray S, Majumder HK, Chakravarty AK, Mukhopadhyay S, Gil RR, Cordell GA. Amarogentin, a naturally occurring secoiridoid glycoside and a newly recognized inhibitor of topoisomerase I from Leishmania donovani. J Nat Prod 1996; 59: 27-9.
Medda S, Mukhopadhyay S, Basu MK. Evaluation of the in vivo activity and toxicity of amarogentin, an antileishmanial agent, in both liposomal and niosomal forms. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999; 44: 791-4.
Yeo PL, Chye SM, Ling APK, Koh RY. Niosome: A mini review on its structure, properties, methods of preparation and medical applications. J Chem Pharm Res 2016; 8: 231-9.
Tabassum S, Mahmood S, Hanif J, Hina M, Uzair B. An Overview of Medicinal Importance of Swertia chirayita. Int J Appl Sci Technol 2012; 2: 298-304.
Harald R, Torben L. Carrier-linked carbamate prodrug linkers. US9561285 (2013).
Matthew D. Compositions methods and systems for the treatment of cutaneous disorders. US2016193177 (2016).
Gerhard K, Jakob L, Katja O, Katharina R. Preparations for oral consumption. US9386787 (2014).
Giovanni A, Maik B, Anne B, Wolfgang M. Methods of identifying antagonists of the hTAS2R46 bitter taste receptor. US8673578 (2014).
Maik B, Anne B, Christina K, Wolfgang M, Giovanni A, Valeria D. Methods of identifying agonists and antagonists of hTASR bitter taste receptors. US8043823 (2011).
Frank SP, Regine L. Compositions comprising a bittering agent. US2015252304 (2015).
Maik B, Anne B, Christina K, Wolfgang M, Giovanni A. Agonists of bitter taste receptors and uses thereof. US8524465 (2013).
Liquan H, Jiang X. Method of Modifying Fertility. US2015087610 (2015).

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy