Generic placeholder image

Current Nutrition & Food Science


ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Review Article

Buckwheat: A Useful Food and Its Effects on Human Health

Author(s): Hacı Ömer Yilmaz*, Nurcan Yabanci Ayhan and Çağdaş Salih Meriç

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2020

Page: [29 - 34] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1573401314666180910140021

Price: $65


Buckwheat is a plant used for many purposes, such as consumed as a food and used in the treatment of diseases. It is a good source of many vitamins and minerals and has balanced nutritional value. Because of its nutrient content and many positive effects on human health, buckwheat has become a functional food, recently. Main effects of buckwheat on human health are its hypotensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. Thus, it is considered an alternative food component in dietary treatment for chronic and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and celiac disease. Also, its rich nutrient content supports daily diet and provides a better eating profile. As a result, buckwheat is accepted as a functional food, suggested to improve human health and is used in the treatment of diseases. The aim of this review is to explain some positive effects of buckwheat on human health.

Keywords: Buckwheat, functional food, health effect, nutrition, rutin, tartary buckwheat.

Graphical Abstract
Giménez-Bastida JA, Zieliński H. Buckwheat as a functional food and its effects on health – A comprehensive review. J Agric Food Chem 2015; 63(36): 7896-913.
[] [PMID: 26270637]
Li SQ, Zhang QH. Advances in the development of functional foods from buckwheat. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2001; 41(6): 451-64.
[] [PMID: 11592684]
Christa K, Soral-Smietana M. Buckwheat grains and buckwheat products – Nutritional and prophylactic value of their components – A review. Czech J Food Sci 2008; 26: 153-62.
Valenzuela H, Smith J. Buckwheat. Sustainable Agriculture Green Manure Crops 2002; 4: 1-3.
Wronkowska M, Soral-Smietana M, Krupa-Kozak U. Buckwheat, as food component of a high nutritional value, used in the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal diseases. Eur J Plant Sci Biotechnol 2010; 4: 1-7.
Popovic V, Sikora V, Berenji J, et al. Analysis of buckwheat production ın the world and Serbia. Econ Agric 2014; 61: 53-62.
Gül M, Birer E. Socio-economic structure of buckwheat farms in Turkey. Columella-Int J Environ Agric Res 2017; 4: 223-8.
Mota C, Santos M, Mauro R, et al. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals. Food Chem 2016; 193: 55-61.
[] [PMID: 26433287]
Zhang ZL, Zhou ML, Tang Y, et al. Bioactive compounds in functional buckwheat food. Food Res Int 2012; 49: 389-95.
Sammut D, Dennison P, Venter C, Kurukulaaratchy RJ. Buckwheat allergy: a potential problem in 21st century Britain. BMJ Case Rep 2011; 2011: 1-3.
[] [PMID: 22674117]
Multari S, Neacsu M, Scobbie L, et al. Nutritional and phytochemical content of high-protein crops. J Agric Food Chem 2016; 64(41): 7800-11.
[] [PMID: 27299956]
Zhou X, Wen L, Li Z, Zhou Y, Chen Y, Lu Y. Advance on the benefits of bioactive peptides from buckwheat. Phytochem Rev 2015; 14: 1-8.
Steadman K, Burgoon M, Lewis B, Edwardson S, Obendorf R. Buckwheat seed milling fractions: description, macronutrient composition and dietary fibre. J Cereal Sci 2001; 33: 271-8.
Krkoskova B, Mrazova Z. Prophylactic components of buckwheat. Food Res Int 2005; 38: 561-8.
Wijngaard H, Arendt E. Buckwheat. Cereal Chem 2006; 83: 91-401.
Bonafaccia G, Fabjan N. Nutritional comparison of tartary buckwheat with common buckwheat and minor cereals. Zb Bioteh Fak Univ Ljubl Kmet 2003; 81: 349-55.
Nakamura K, Koyama M, Ishida R, Kitahara T, Nakajima T, Aoyama T. Characterization of bioactive agents in five types of marketed sprouts and comparison of their antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic effects in fructose-loaded SHRs. J Food Sci Technol 2016; 53(1): 581-90.
[] [PMID: 26787977]
Bao T, Wang Y, Li YT, et al. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2016; 17(12): 941-51.
[] [PMID: 27921399]
Zhang C, Zhang R, Li YM, et al. Cholesterol-lowering activity of tartary buckwheat protein. J Agric Food Chem 2017; 65(9): 1900-6.
[] [PMID: 28199789]
Brajdes C, Vizireanu C. Sprouted buckwheat: an important vegetable source of antioxidants. Food Technol 2012; 36: 53-60.
Sun T, Ho CT. Antioxidant activities of buckwheat extracts. Food Chem 2005; 90: 743-9.
Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Cardetti M, Keen CL. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(6): 1732-5.
[] [PMID: 12617614]
Gheldof N, Wang XH, Engeseth NJ. Buckwheat honey increases serum antioxidant capacity in humans. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(5): 1500-5.
[] [PMID: 12590505]
Bojňanská T, Frančåková H, Chlebo P, Vollmannová A. Rutin content in buckwheat enriched bread and influence of its consumption on plasma total antioxidant status. Czech J Food Sci 2009; 27: 236-40.
Oomah BD, Mazza G. Flavonoids and antioxidative activities in buckwheat. J Agric Food Chem 1996; 44: 1746-50.
Giménez-Bastida JA, Zieliński H. Buckwheat as a functional food and its effects on health. J Agric Food Chem 2015; 63(36): 7896-913.
[] [PMID: 26270637]
Zieliński H, Kozłowska H. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48(6): 2008-16.
[] [PMID: 10888490]
Nam TG, Lee SM, Park JH, Kim DO, Baek NI, Eom SH. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts. Food Chem 2015; 170: 97-101.
[] [PMID: 25306322]
Lee LS, Choi EJ, Kim CH, et al. Contribution of flavonoids to the antioxidant properties of common and tartary buckwheat. J Cereal Sci 2016; 68: 181-6.
Brajdes C, Bahrim G, Dinica R, Vizireanu C. Phenolics composition and their biochemical stability confirmation by in vitro gastrointestinal conditions simulation, for a new functional fermented beverage based on sprouted buckwheat. Rom Biotechnol Lett 2013; 18: 8832-42.
Guo XD, Ma YJ, Parry J, Gao JM, Yu LL, Wang M. Phenolics content and antioxidant activity of tartary buckwheat from different locations. Molecules 2011; 16(12): 9850-67.
[] [PMID: 22117174]
Sytar O. Phenolic acids in the inflorescences of different varieties of buckwheat and their antioxidant activity. J King Saud Univ Sci 2015; 27: 136-42.
Liu CL, Chen YS, Yang JH, Chiang BH. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(1): 173-8.
[] [PMID: 18072736]
Yang N, Li YM, Zhang K, et al. Hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat flour is mediated by increasing sterol excretion and down-regulation of intestinal NPC1L1 and ACAT2. J Funct Foods 2014; 6: 311-8.
Berger S, Raman G, Vishwanathan R, Jacques PF, Johnson EJ. Dietary cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2015; 102(2): 276-94.
[] [PMID: 26109578]
Wieslander G, Fabjan N, Vogrincic M, et al. Eating buckwheat cookies is associated with the reduction in serum levels of myeloperoxidase and cholesterol: a double blind crossover study in day-care centre staffs. Tohoku J Exp Med 2011; 225(2): 123-30.
[] [PMID: 21931228]
Merendino N, Molinari R, Costantini L, et al. A new “functional” pasta containing tartary buckwheat sprouts as an ingredient improves the oxidative status and normalizes some blood pressure parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Funct 2014; 5(5): 1017-26.
[] [PMID: 24658587]
Martín-Peláez S, Castañer O, Konstantinidou V, et al. Effect of olive oil phenolic compounds on the expression of blood pressure-related genes in healthy individuals. Eur J Nutr 2017; 56(2): 663-70.
[] [PMID: 26658900]
Rodrigues SL, Souza Júnior PR, Pimentel EB, et al. Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil). Braz J Med Biol Res 2015; 48(8): 728-35.
[] [PMID: 26132095]
Sofi F, Ghiselli L, Dinu M, et al. Consumption of buckwheat products and cardiovascular risk profile: A randomized, single-blinded crossover trial. Nutr Food Sci 2016; 6: 3.
Kim DW, Hwang IK, Lim SS, et al. Germinated Buckwheat extract decreases blood pressure and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in aortic endothelial cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Phytother Res 2009; 23(7): 993-8.
[] [PMID: 19140152]
Cheng D, Zhang X, Meng M, et al. The protective effect of a buckwheat-enriched diet on renal injury in high salt-induced hypertension in rats. Food Funct 2016; 7(8): 3548-54.
[] [PMID: 27457879]
Hosaka T, Nii Y, Tomotake H, et al. Extracts of common buckwheat bran prevent sucrose digestion. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2011; 57(6): 441-5.
[] [PMID: 22472288]
Tomotake H, Kayashita J, Kato N. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat. J Sci Food Agric 2015; 95(10): 1963-7.
[] [PMID: 25363871]
Qiu J, Li Z, Qin Y, Yue Y, Liu Y. Protective effect of tartary buckwheat on renal function in type 2 diabetics: a randomized controlled trial. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2016; 12: 1721-7.
[] [PMID: 27920542]
Ortiz LG, Berry DC, Ruiz OC, González ER, Pérez PA, Rivas Edel Á. Understanding basic carbohydrate counting, glycemic index, and glycemic load for improved glycemic control in Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hisp Health Care Int 2014; 12(3): 138-45.
[] [PMID: 25239210]
Zhu F. Buckwheat starch: Structures, properties, and applications. Trends Food Sci Technol 2016; 49: 121-35.
Wang ML, Gellar L, Nathanson BH, et al. Decrease in glycemic index associated with improved glycemic control among latinos with type 2 diabetes. J Acad Nutr Diet 2015; 115(6): 898-906.
[] [PMID: 25547339]
Zeng Y, Pu X, Du J, et al. Use of functional foods for diabetes prevention in China. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2012; 6: 2570-9.
Skrabanja V, Liljeberg Elmståhl HG, Kreft I, Björck IM. Nutritional properties of starch in buckwheat products: studies in vitro and in vivo. J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49(1): 490-6.
[] [PMID: 11170616]
Su-Que L, Ya-Ning M, Xing-Pu L, Ye-Lun Z, Guang-Yao S, Hui-Juan M. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Nutr J 2013; 12: 64.
[] [PMID: 23680007]
Qiu J, Liu Y, Yue Y, Qin Y, Li Z. Dietary tartary buckwheat intake attenuates insulin resistance and improves lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr Res 2016; 36(12): 1392-401.
[] [PMID: 27919453]
Lee CC, Hsu WH, Shen SR, Cheng YH, Wu SC. Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet-induced mice. Exp Diabetes Res 2012; 2012375673
[] [PMID: 22548048]
Kawa JM, Taylor CG, Przybylski R. Buckwheat concentrate reduces serum glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(25): 7287-91.
[] [PMID: 14640572]
Kreft I, Skrabanja V. Nutritional properties of starch in buckwheat noodles. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2002; 48(1): 47-50.
[] [PMID: 12026188]
Stringer DM, Taylor CG, Appah P, Blewett H, Zahradka P. Consumption of buckwheat modulates the post-prandial response of selected gastrointestinal satiety hormones in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2013; 62(7): 1021-31.
[] [PMID: 23485142]
Li J, Gong F, Li F. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoids from tatary buckwheat in type 2 diabetic rats. Biomed Res 2016; 27: 132-7.
Koppel J, Greenwald BS. Optimal treatment of Alzheimer’s disease psychosis: challenges and solutions. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014; 10: 2253-62.
[] [PMID: 25473289]
Pu F, Mishima K, Egashira N, et al. Protective effect of buckwheat polyphenols against long-lasting impairment of spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal damage in rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia. J Pharmacol Sci 2004; 94(4): 393-402.
[] [PMID: 15107579]
Pu F, Mishima K, Irie K, et al. Differential effects of buckwheat and kudingcha extract on neuronal damage in cultured hippocampal neurons and spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine in an eight-arm radial maze. J Health Sci 2005; 51: 636-44.
Gülpinar A, Orhan I, Kan A, Şenol F, Celik S, Kartal M. Estimation of in vitro neuroprotective properties and quantification of rutin and fatty acids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) cultivated in Turkey. Food Res Int 2012; 46: 536-43.
Choi JY, Cho EJ, Lee HS, Lee JM, Yoon YH, Lee S. Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory function in an in vivo amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer model. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 53: 105-11.
[] [PMID: 23219778]
Choi JY, Lee JM, Lee DG, et al. The n-Butanol fraction and rutin from tartary buckwheat improve cognition and memory in an in vivo model of amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer’s disease. J Med Food 2015; 18(6): 631-41.
[] [PMID: 25785882]
Zhang HW, Zhang YH, Lu MJ, Tong WJ, Cao GW. Comparison of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia between buckwheat seed-consuming and non-consuming Mongolian-Chinese populations in Inner Mongolia, China. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2007; 34(9): 838-44.
[] [PMID: 17645626]
Son BK, Kim JY, Lee SS. Effect of adlay, buckwheat and barley on lipid metabolism and aorta histopathology in rats fed an obesogenic diet. Ann Nutr Metab 2008; 52(3): 181-7.
[] [PMID: 18544971]
Baljeet SY, Ritika BY, Roshan LY. Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat flour for biscuit making. Int Food Res J 2010; 17: 1067-76.
Dinu M, Macchia D, Pagliai G, et al. Symptomatic efficacy of buckwheat products in Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017; 26(4): 630-6.
[] [PMID: 28582812]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy