Introduction: Sarcandra glabra has been used in traditional medicine to improve mental efficiency and to reduce stress. Volatile oil, phenolic acids, polysaccharide, terpenoids, saponins and flavonoids are bioactive compounds present in Sarcandra glabra.
Materials and Methods: In this paper, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in vitro of different fractions of Sarcandra glabra ethanolic extract and neuroprotective effects of EtOAc fraction of ethanolic extract on cognitive deficits mice induced with scopolamine. The leaves of Sarcandra glabra were extracted with ethanol 70% and successively fractionated with different organic solvents. These fractions were assessed the antioxidant capacity by DPPH method and AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman method. For in vivo assay, mice were administrated orally EtOAc fraction of ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) for fourteen days, and were injected 1 mg/kg scopolamine intraperitoneally for five days to induce cognitive deficits. ACh levels and AChE activity in brain tissue were measured.
Conclusion: We found that EtOAc fraction exhibited the highest of total phenolic content being equivalent to 67.4 ± 3.5 mg quercetin/g of EtOAc fraction. This EtOAc fraction also presented the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 6.84 ± 0.45 µg/mL and AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 12.15 ± 1.74 µg/mL in a concentration-dependent manner. We also showed that EtOAc fraction inhibited AChE activity following mixed inhibition and Ki value of 10.54 ± 2.17 μg/mL. Scopolamine reduced the ACh levels and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain tissue. Treatment with EtOAc fraction reverted the effect of SCP in the brain tissue of animals, increasing acetylcholine level and decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity. Our data demonstrated that the EtOAc fraction of Sarcandra glabra’s ethanolic extract could be a benefit in the treatment of cognitive deficits.