Background: The brain is a vital part of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by the presence of soft tissue in its internal structure which protects itself. Research on design of drugs for CNS disorders is in progress and up to date information is required for further investigation.
Objective: The present paper is written with the objective to compile all the available data and information on CNS disorders and CNS acting drugs. CNS acting drugs are important to consider because some drugs get ineffective owing to incapability to efficiently deliver and sustain them within the brain for effective treatment.
CNS Disorders: The current trend to design therapeutic drugs for CNS disorders focuses on neurotransmitters release and their reuptake, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other CNS disorders. The disorders associated with CNS are characterized by the progressive loss of gray matter and/or white matter structures.
Drugs: CNS stimulants are the class of drugs, producing response to alleviate a particular medical condition. CNS stimulants improve the brain function in patients with schizophrenia and related diseases. CNS stimulants are a class of therapeutic drugs used to treat CNS disorder including the conditions like lack of adrenergic stimulation, symptoms of narcolepsy and neonatal apnea, etc. Apart from drugs, a number of smart tools including Multi-Target Designed Ligands (MTDL) and “predictor” models are contemporarily used to design therapeutic agents for CNS disorders.
Mechanism: The majority of CNS stimulants causes stimulation of the traditional "fight or flight" syndrome which is concerned with activation of sympathetic nervous system. These neurotransmitters associated receptors are concerned in drug abuse and addiction withdrawal related phenomenon.
Conclusion: The present review embarks on detail up-to-date information on CNS stimulant drugs, their mechanism of action, in vivo models for biological evaluations with major emphasis on tools in design of therapeutic drugs for CNS disorders.