Objective: In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles coated with polysorbate- 80 (PS-80) and containing amphotericin B (AmB) were developed using a coacervation method.
Methods: The nanoparticles were spherical, had a uniform size distribution (polydispersity < 0.25), a small mean size (185 ± 5 nm), a high zeta potential (-38.0 ± 0.7 mV), and a high AmB encapsulation efficiency (93 ± 1%). The AmB release profile was prolonged and diffusion-controlled, resulting in a low degree of AmB aggregation in solution. The physicochemical characteristics of these AmB containing nanoparticles were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and derivative thermogravimetry and showed that the nanoencapsulation process lead to AmB amorphization while maintaining its chemical integrity.
Results: In a hemolysis assay, AmB-loaded PS-80-coated BSA nanoparticles demonstrated an absence of cytotoxicity toward erythrocytes, whereas pure and commercial AmB were highly hemolytic.
Conclusion: In an assay to assess antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, AmB-charged PS-80-coated BSA nanoparticles were effective, however, due to the prolonged AmB release from the nanoparticles, the MIC was higher than for pure or commercial AmB. PS-80-coated BSA nanoparticles are potential carriers for the delivery of AmB for the treatment of Cryptococcus sp infections.