Background: Cell signaling through nitric oxide (NO) is a multifaceted mechanism, which regulates metabolic activities and fate in different tissues. The peroxynitrite (ONOO-) formed as reaction product of nitric oxide radical and superoxide interacts with cell membrane phospholipids and proteins causing damage.
Objective: The reaction kinetics to form nitrotyrosine (ONOO-tyrosine) and/or nitrosylated cysteine (ONOO-cysteine) in protein molecules during posttranslational modification and nitration of lipids are therefore critical in determining cells’ signaling mechanism for survival or apoptosis.
Results: The nitrosylation was found to modulate GPCRs and activation of guanylate cyclase as well as regulate NF-κB activation. The recent findings have shown the neuroprotective effects of S- nitrosylation, though mechanism is unclear.
Conclusion: While keeping the background in mind, we address here the biological function of NO derivatives in medicine. We target four known compounds: SNAP, SIN- 1 chloride, SNP and GSNO to understand the effect of NO in different tissues. Here we analyze the existing findings to assess therapeutic relevance of NO-signaling during inflammation, vasodilation and tolerance.