Polymeric nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems due to their physicochemical properties, which may be explored to improve the treatment and prevention of several diseases, including oral conditions. Moreover, the pharmacological effects of polymers may be improved by nanostructuration. Therefore, this article provides a detailed review of the studies published between 2010 and 2017 covering the use of polymeric nanoparticles in the treatment and/or prevention of oral diseases. A brief description about the dental biofilm and oral diseases is presented in first part of the article. The following section includes an important discussion about the strategies studied to improve the treatment and prevention of these diseases using polymeric nanoparticles: (i) a better drug antibacterial effect, (ii) the release of the drug in a time-controlled way, (iii) the increase of drug uptake by cells, (iv) the cytotoxicity in tumor cells and solubility in water, and (v) mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the composition and size of the polymeric nanoparticles explored by these strategies were described. Finally, in the last part of this review, the in vitro and in vivo results which demonstrate the effect of these systems in the treatment and/or prevention of the most prevalent oral disorders were highlighted: dental carious lesions, oral cancer, and periodontal and endodontic diseases.