Background: 2-Substituted-1,3-benzothiazoles, 1,3-benzimidazoles and 1,3-benzoxazoles are one of the important classes of bicycle hetero-compounds because these moieties can serve as unique and versatile scaffolds for experimental drug design. Among these herocycles, 1,3- benzothiazole derivatives have attracted considerable attention in the research area of synthetic as well as pharmaceutical chemistry because of its potent and significant pharmacological activities. These moieties act as antitumor, antiviral, anti-HIV, and microbiological agents. Some of the benzothiazole derivatives have also been used for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, in the prevention of solid organ transplant rejection, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and analgesia. Moreover, these scaffolds were also utilized in industries as antioxidants, vulcanization accelerators, and a dopant in light emitting organic electroluminescent devices. Beside these, they also have interesting chemical properties and used as chemosensors for a range of analytes.
Methods: As a consequence, a wide range of methods are available for synthesizing the benzothiazole nucleus and its derivatives. These methods enable to access benzothiazole unit with structural diversity and various substitutions in its core nucleus.
Conclusion: The present review deals with the general method of condensation as well as recent advance method of cyclization which were adopted and reported in the literature for the synthesis of diverse benzothiazole nucleus.
Keywords: Benzothiazole derivatives, chemosensors, cyclization, heterocycles, hetero-compounds, synthetic.