Background: The topographical surficial characteristics and properties of materials can induce different cell reactions regarding the viability and adhesion according to the recent patents. The aim of this in vitro experimental study was to evaluate the viability and adhesion of fibroblastic cells seeded on titanium disks with different surface topography. In addition, we revised all patents related to surface treatment of dental implants.
Methods: Fibroblast cells were cultured on 6 surface models: mA disks corresponding to titanium surfaces without additional treatment (machined surface) were compared with mB disks, where surfaces were sandblasting etching using aluminum oxide; mC disks where titanium oxide was used for sandblasting etching; mD disks where triple acid conditioning was used; mE disks with laser treated surface; and mF disks which were made of titanium powder by a sintering process. Different surfaces were analyzed using an optical laser profilometer and SEM analysis. To evaluate cell viability on different disc surfaces, a fibroblast cell line derived from monkey kidney (VERO) was in vitro cultured on treated disks surface and cell viability assays were performed to compare growth of fibroblastic cells. Then, the adhesion of the cells was tested by washing procedure.
Results: The disks mA, mB, mC and mD less pronounced rugosities were observed and, disc in the mE and mF disks displayed a deeper pronounced surface. The cell viability and adhesion analysis showed significant higher levels on titanium disks surface obtained by the mF method.
Conclusion: Our analysis showed that the surface morphology of titanium disc, independent of the roughness parameters, affects cell viability and adhesion differentially, since a higher percentage of viable and attached cells were observed on the mF disks in comparison with the other evaluated surfaces.