Background and Objective: Statins, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl-glutharyl Coenzyme A reductase inhibitors showed their therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related diseases. Recently, the properties of statins, separate from their lipid lowering activity have attracted much attention. These properties that cover a wide area of physiopathological activities including cell maturation, immune response regulation, tissue fibrosis, endothelial activity and are called pleiotropic activity. Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant, statins-dependent regulation of immune system reactivity, reduction of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines as well as suppression of endothelial activity and damage.
Methods: The present study reviewed the potential utility of statins as a concomitant regimen in the treatment of various connective tissue diseases. To address this we performed a methodical search though Pubmed database searching for term statins and pleiotropic effects and connective tissue disease or rheumatology.
Results: One hundred and thirty one prominent research and review papers were identified and analyzed. Majority of research papers focused on laboratory models of statins activity, only a few of them analyzed data from human studies.
Conclusion: Statins may have a therapeutic potential as a concomitant treatment for connective tissue diseases, that has been elegantly proven in many animal and laboratory studies. They deep interfere with immunological mechanism of autoantigen presentation, expressions of adhesion molecules. These phenomena may be recognized as the most important mode of action. Less is known about the potential of statins in clinical practice. Many small trials examined therapeutic potentials in various autoimmune diseases with contradictory results, disabling making the final conclusions. The future human studies should answer what patients population may benefit with concomitant statins' treatment.
Keywords: Statins, pleiotropic effect, immunomodulation, connective tissue diseases, therapeutic, Mevalonate pathway.