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Current HIV Research


ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Review Article

Prevalence of HIV-Seropositivity and Associated Impact on Mortality among Injured Patients from Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Author(s): Adam R. Aluisio*, Soham Rege, Barclay T. Stewart, John Kinuthia, Adam C. Levine, Michael J. Mello and Carey Farquhar

Volume 15 , Issue 5 , 2017

Page: [307 - 317] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1570162X15666170920112743

Price: $65


Background: Although HIV and injury contribute substantially to disease burdens in lowand middle-income countries (LMIC), their intersection is poorly characterized.

Objective: This systematic review assessed the prevalence and associated mortality impact of HIVseropositivity among injured patients in LMIC.

Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL, POPLINE and Cochrane databases through August 2016 was performed. Prospective and cross-sectional reports of injured patients from LMIC that evaluated HIV-serostatus were included. Two reviewers identified eligible records (kappa=0.83); quality was assessed using GRADE criteria. HIV-seroprevalence and mortality risks were summarized and pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models with heterogeneity assessed.

Results: Of 472 retrieved records, sixteen met inclusion. All reports were of low or very low quality and derived from sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-serostatus was available for 3,994 patients. Individual report and pooled HIV-seroprevalence estimates were uniformly greater than temporally matched national statistics (range: 4.5-35.0%). Pooled reports from South Africa were three-fold greater than matched national prevalence (32.0%, 95% CI, 28.0-37.0%). Mortality data were available for 1,398 patients. Heterogeneity precluded pooled mortality analysis. Among individual reports, 66.7% demonstrated significantly increased relative risks (RR) of death; none found reduced risk of death among HIV-seropositive patients. Increased mortality risk among HIV-seropositive patients ranged from 1.86 (95% CI, 1.11-3.09) in Malawi to 10.7 (95% CI, 1.32-86.1) in South Africa.

Conclusion: The available data indicate that HIV-seropositivity among the injured is high relative to national rates and may increase mortality, suggesting that integrated HIV-injury programming could be beneficial. Given the data limitations, further study of the HIV-injury intersection is crucially needed.

Keywords: HIV, Injury, low and-middle-income countries (LMIC), screening, mortality, sub-Saharan Africa.

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