Background: Diabetes mellitus, the widely prevalent disease of pancreas, is a metabolic disorder caused by autoimmune destruction of β cells or insulin insufficiency or insulin resistance. Replacement of damaged β cells by cell therapy can mitigate the condition and re-establish normal metabolic control. This has opened up new horizons for research, such as stem cells, cellular reprogramming and β cell regeneration.
Objective: The goal of the study was to summarize the available literature on the use of stem cells for the regeneration of pancreatic β cells and treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Results and Conclusion: Stem cells are exceptional having the potential to self renew and differentiate in many lineages. Stem cells hold tremendous potential to regenerate β cells and treat diabetes mellitus but many milestones on the way are yet to be achieved. But researchers do believe that stem cells and regenerative medicines will be widely used in clinical practices and possibly new effective methodology would be designed for even cure, mitigate and reduce the social burden of diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, pancreatic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).