Background: Classically the oxidative stress and more recently inflammatory processes have been identified as the major causes of brain aging. Oxidative stress and inflammation affect each other, but there is more information about the effects of oxidative stress on aging than regarding the contribution of inflammation on it.
Methods: In the intense research for methods to delay or mitigate the effects of aging, are interesting polyphenols, natural molecules synthesized by plants (e.g. resveratrol). Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make them useful molecules in the prevention of aging.
Results: The antiaging effects of polyphenols could be due to several related mechanisms, among which are the prevention of oxidative stress, SIRT1 activation and inflammaging modulation, via regulation of some signaling pathways, such as NF-κB.
Conclusion: In this review, we describe the positive effects of polyphenols on the prevention of the changes that occur during aging in the brain and their consequences on cognition, emphasizing the possible modulation of inflammaging by polyphenols through a SIRT1-mediated mechanism.