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Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Na+,K+-ATPase as a Target for Treatment of Tissue Fibrosis

Author(s): Sergei N. Orlov*, Jennifer La, Larisa V. Smolyaninova and Nickolai O. Dulin*

Volume 26 , Issue 3 , 2019

Page: [564 - 575] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170619105407

Price: $65


Myofibroblast activation is a critical process in the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis accounting for 45% of all deaths. No effective therapies are available for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. We focus our mini-review on recent data showing that cardiotonic steroids (CTS) that are known as potent inhibitors of Na+,K+-ATPase affect myofibroblast differentiation in a cell type-specific manner. In cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF), epithelial cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts, CTS blocked myofibroblast differentiation triggered by profibrotic cytokine TGF-β. In contrast, in the absence of TGF-β, CTS augmented myofibroblast differentiation of cultured cardiac fibroblasts. The cell type-specific action of CTS in myofibroblast differentiation is consistent with data obtained in in vivo studies. Thus, infusion of ouabain via osmotic mini-pumps attenuated the development of lung fibrosis in bleomycintreated mice, whereas marinobufagenin stimulated renal and cardiac fibrosis in rats with experimental renal injury. In TGF-β-treated HLF, suppression of myofibroblast differentiation by ouabain is mediated by elevation of the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio and is accompanied by upregulation of cyclooxygenase COX-2 and downregulation of TGF-β receptor TGFBR2. Augmented expression of COX-2 is abolished by inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, suggesting a key role of [Ca2+]i-mediated signaling. What is the relative impact in tissue fibrosis of [Na+]i,[K+]iindependent signaling documented in several types of CTS-treated cells? Do the different conformational transitions of Na+,K+-ATPase α1 subunit in the presence of ouabain and marinobufagenin contribute to their distinct involvement in myofibroblast differentiation? Additional experiments should be done to answer these questions and to develop novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of fibrosis-related disorders.

Keywords: Na+, K+-ATPase, cardiac steroids, fibrosis, myofibroblasts, cyclooxygenase, TGF-β receptors, COX-2, intracellular Na+ and K+.

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