Background: Anthocephalus cadamba is used in traditional and folklore medicinal system.
Objectives: In order to validate its traditional medicinal claim, the present study was designed to assess antioxidant, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activity of fractions from Anthocephalus cadamba bark and to identify their active phytoconstituents.
Methods: The four fractions viz. hexane (HACB), chloroform (CACB), ethylacetate (EACB) and nbutanol (NACB) were fractionated from the crude methanol extract from bark of A. cadamba. All fractions were evaluated for antiradical efficacy using various in vitro antioxidant assays and for antigenotoxicity by SOS chromotest using E. coli PQ37 tester strain. Cytotoxic potential was checked using MTT assay.
Results: Among the four fractions, EACB and NACB exhibited promising radical quenching potential in DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical scavenging and pBR322 plasmid DNA nicking assays. All the fractions were evaluated for genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity in SOS chromotest using E. coli PQ37 tester strain. Results revealed that fractions were non-genotoxic and have potential to suppress the genotoxicity induced by 4NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide) and AFB1 (aflatoxin B1). NACB was found to inhibit the growth of colon (COLO 205) cancer cells with GI50 of 54.36 µg/ml. To identify bioactive principles in the active fractions, NACB and EACB were subjected to UPLC-electrospray-ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry which revealed the presence of 3β-isodihyrocadambine-oxide, cadambine, phelasin A/B, 3β- dihydrocadambine and 3'-O-caffeoylsweroside like compounds.
Conclusions: Overall results revealed that A. cadamba is a rich source of antioxidant, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic constituents which may find their significance in various food and pharmaceutical products.