Generic placeholder image

Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Food and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Author(s): Teodora Surdea-Blaga, Dana E. Negrutiu, Mariana Palage and Dan L. Dumitrascu*

Volume 26 , Issue 19 , 2019

Page: [3497 - 3511] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170515123807

Price: $65


Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic condition with a high prevalence in western countries. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation episodes and a decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure are the main mechanisms involved. Currently used drugs are efficient on reflux symptoms, but only as long as they are administered, because they do not modify the reflux barrier. Certain nutrients or foods are generally considered to increase the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, therefore physicians recommend changes in diet and some patients avoid bothering foods. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding food and gastroesophageal reflux. For example, fat intake increases the perception of reflux symptoms. Regular coffee and chocolate induce gastroesophageal reflux and increase the lower esophageal exposure to acid. Spicy foods might induce heartburn, but the exact mechanism is not known. Beer and wine induce gastroesophageal reflux, mainly in the first hour after intake. For other foods, like fried food or carbonated beverages data on gastroesophageal reflux is scarce. Similarly, there are few data about the type of diet and gastroesophageal reflux. Mediterranean diet and a very low carbohydrate diet protect against reflux. Regarding diet-related practices, consistent data showed that a “short-meal-to-sleep interval” favors reflux episodes, therefore some authors recommend that dinner should be at least four hours before bedtime. All these recommendations should consider patient’s weight, because several meta-analyses showed a positive association between increased body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, heartburn, diet, coffee, fat intake, chocolate, alcohol.

Vakil, N.; van Zanten, S.V.; Kahrilas, P.; Dent, J.; Jones, R. Global Consensus Group. The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 101(8), 1900-1920.
[] [PMID: 16928254]
El-Serag, H.B.; Sweet, S.; Winchester, C.C.; Dent, J. Update on the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Gut, 2014, 63(6), 871-880.
[] [PMID: 23853213]
Martinez, S.D.; Malagon, I.B.; Garewal, H.S.; Cui, H.; Fass, R. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD)--acid reflux and symptom patterns. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2003, 17(4), 537-545.
[] [PMID: 12622762]
Lind, T.; Havelund, T.; Carlsson, R.; Anker-Hansen, O.; Glise, H.; Hernqvist, H.; Junghard, O.; Lauritsen, K.; Lundell, L.; Pedersen, S.A.; Stubberöd, A. Heartburn without oesophagitis: efficacy of omeprazole therapy and features determining therapeutic response. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 1997, 32(10), 974-979.
[] [PMID: 9361168]
Galmiche, J.P.; Clouse, R.E.; Balint, A. Functional Esophageal Disorders. In: Rome III - The functional gastrointestinal disorders, 3rd ed; Drossman, D.A.; Corazziari, E; Delvaux, M; Spiller, R.C; Talley, N.J; Thompson, W.G; Whitehead, W.E, Eds.; Degnon Associates Inc: McLean, VA,, 2006; pp. 295-368..
Simrén, M.; Silny, J.; Holloway, R.; Tack, J.; Janssens, J.; Sifrim, D. Relevance of ineffective oesophageal motility during oesophageal acid clearance. Gut, 2003, 52(6), 784-790.
[] [PMID: 12740331]
Festi, D.; Scaioli, E.; Baldi, F.; Vestito, A.; Pasqui, F.; Di Biase, A.R.; Colecchia, A. Body weight, lifestyle, dietary habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease. World J. Gastroenterol., 2009, 15(14), 1690-1701.
[] [PMID: 19360912]
Khan, M.; Santana, J.; Donnellan, C.; Preston, C.; Moayyedi, P. Medical treatments in the short term management of reflux oesophagitis. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2007, (2)CD003244
[PMID: 17443524]
DeVault, K.R.; Castell, D.O. American College of Gastroenterology. Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2005, 100(1), 190-200.
[] [PMID: 15654800]
Pandolfino, J.E.; Shi, G.; Trueworthy, B.; Kahrilas, P.J. Esophagogastric junction opening during relaxation distinguishes nonhernia reflux patients, hernia patients, and normal subjects. Gastroenterology, 2003, 125(4), 1018-1024.
[] [PMID: 14517784]
Dent, J.; Holloway, R.H.; Toouli, J.; Dodds, W.J. Mechanisms of lower oesophageal sphincter incompetence in patients with symptomatic gastrooesophageal reflux. Gut, 1988, 29(8), 1020-1028.
[] [PMID: 3410327]
Holloway, R.H.; Hongo, M.; Berger, K.; McCallum, R.W. Gastric distention: a mechanism for postprandial gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology, 1985, 89(4), 779-784.
[] [PMID: 4029557]
Lacy, B.E.; Carter, J.; Weiss, J.E.; Crowell, M.D. The effects of intraduodenal nutrient infusion on serum CCK, LES pressure, and gastroesophageal reflux. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 2011, 23(7), 631-e256.
[] [PMID: 21435103]
Pandolfino, J.E.; Zhang, Q.G.; Ghosh, S.K.; Han, A.; Boniquit, C.; Kahrilas, P.J. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux: mechanistic analysis using concurrent fluoroscopy and high-resolution manometry. Gastroenterology, 2006, 131(6), 1725-1733.
[] [PMID: 17087957]
Ledeboer, M.; Masclee, A.A.; Batstra, M.R.; Jansen, J.B.; Lamers, C.B. Effect of cholecystokinin on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in humans. Gut, 1995, 36(1), 39-44.
[] [PMID: 7890233]
Barham, C.P.; Gotley, D.C.; Mills, A.; Alderson, D. Precipitating causes of acid reflux episodes in ambulant patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut, 1995, 36(4), 505-510.
[] [PMID: 7737554]
Dodds, W.J.; Dent, J.; Hogan, W.J.; Helm, J.F.; Hauser, R.; Patel, G.K.; Egide, M.S. Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. N. Engl. J. Med., 1982, 307(25), 1547-1552.
[] [PMID: 7144836]
Roman, S.; Kahrilas, P.J. Mechanisms of Barrett’s oesophagus (clinical): LOS dysfunction, hiatal hernia, peristaltic defects. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol., 2015, 29(1), 17-28.
[] [PMID: 25743453]
Zerbib, F.; Bruley Des Varannes, S.; Scarpignato, C.; Leray, V.; D'Amato, M.; Rozé, C.; Galmiche, J. P. Endogenous cholecystokinin in postprandial lower esophageal sphincter function and fundic tone in humans. Am. J. Physiol., 1998, 275(6 Pt 1), G, 1266-1273.
Iwakiri, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Kotoyori, M.; Yamada, H.; Sugiura, T.; Nakagawa, Y. Relationship between postprandial esophageal acid exposure and meal volume and fat content. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1996, 41(5), 926-930.
[] [PMID: 8625764]
Fox, M.; Barr, C.; Nolan, S.; Lomer, M.; Anggiansah, A.; Wong, T. The effects of dietary fat and calorie density on esophageal acid exposure and reflux symptoms. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2007, 5(4), 439-444.
[] [PMID: 17363334]
Meyer, J.H.; Lembo, A.; Elashoff, J.D.; Fass, R.; Mayer, E.A. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn. Gut, 2001, 49(5), 624-628.
[] [PMID: 11600463]
Shapiro, M.; Green, C.; Bautista, J.M.; Dekel, R.; Risner-Adler, S.; Whitacre, R.; Graver, E.; Fass, R. Assessment of dietary nutrients that influence perception of intra-oesophageal acid reflux events in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2007, 25(1), 93-101.
[] [PMID: 17229224]
El-Serag, H.B.; Satia, J.A.; Rabeneck, L. Dietary intake and the risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a cross sectional study in volunteers. Gut, 2005, 54(1), 11-17.
[] [PMID: 15591498]
Pehl, C.; Pfeiffer, A.; Wendl, B.; Kaess, H. The effect of decaffeination of coffee on gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 1997, 11(3), 483-486.
[] [PMID: 9218070]
Wendl, B.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pehl, C.; Schmidt, T.; Kaess, H. Effect of decaffeination of coffee or tea on gastro-oesophageal reflux. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 1994, 8(3), 283-287.
[] [PMID: 7918922]
Lemke, T.L.; Williams, D.A.; Roche, V.F.; Zito, W.S. Foye’s principles of Medicinal Chemistry, 7th ed; Lippincott Williams&Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2013, pp. 1324-1325.
Hilal-Dandan, R.; Brunton, L.L. Goodman and Gilman’s Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2nd ed; The McGrow-Hill Education: New York, 2014, pp. 636-638.
Heckman, M.A.; Weil, J.; Gonzalez de Mejia, E. Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. J. Food Sci., 2010, 75(3), R77-R87.
[] [PMID: 20492310]
Gudjonsson, H.; McAuliffe, T.L.; Kaye, M.D. The effect of coffee and tea upon lower esophageal sphincteric function. Laeknabladid, 1995, 81(6), 484-488.
[PMID: 20065484]
Cohen, S.; Booth, G.H., Jr Gastric acid secretion and lower-esophageal-sphincter pressure in response to coffee and caffeine. N. Engl. J. Med., 1975, 293(18), 897-899.
[] [PMID: 1177987]
Nilsson, M.; Johnsen, R.; Ye, W.; Hveem, K.; Lagergren, J. Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Gut, 2004, 53(12), 1730-1735.
[] [PMID: 15542505]
Dore, M.P.; Maragkoudakis, E.; Fraley, K.; Pedroni, A.; Tadeu, V.; Realdi, G.; Graham, D.Y.; Delitala, G.; Malaty, H.M. Diet, lifestyle and gender in gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2008, 53(8), 2027-2032.
[] [PMID: 18030622]
El-Serag, H.B.; Richardson, P.; Pilgrim, P.; Gilger, M.A. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults with a history of childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2007, 5(6), 696-701.
[] [PMID: 17544996]
Kim, J.; Oh, S.W.; Myung, S.K.; Kwon, H.; Lee, C.; Yun, J.M.; Lee, H.K. Korean Meta-analysis (KORMA) Study Group. Association between coffee intake and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis. Dis. Esophagus, 2014, 27(4), 311-317.
[] [PMID: 23795898]
Park, C.H.; Kim, K.O.; Baek, I.H.; Choi, M.H.; Jang, H.J.; Kae, S.H.; Kim, J.B.; Baik, G.H.; Shin, W.G.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, H.Y. Differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis according to age in Korea. Dis. Esophagus, 2014, 27(2), 116-121.
[] [PMID: 23009198]
Wright, L.E.; Castell, D.O. The adverse effect of chocolate on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Am. J. Dig. Dis., 1975, 20(8), 703-707.
[] [PMID: 239592]
Murphy, D.W.; Castell, D.O. Chocolate and heartburn: evidence of increased esophageal acid exposure after chocolate ingestion. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1988, 83(6), 633-636.
[PMID: 3376917]
Song, J.H.; Chung, S.J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Chang, D.K.; Son, H.J.; Kim, J.J.; Rhee, J.C.; Rhee, P.L. Relationship between gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and dietary factors in Korea. J. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 2011, 17(1), 54-60.
[] [PMID: 21369492]
Kuzma, M.; Fodor, K.; Maász, G.; Avar, P.; Mózsik, G.; Past, T.; Fischer, E.; Perjési, P. A validated HPLC-FLD method for analysis of intestinal absorption and metabolism of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the rat. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2015, 103, 59-66.
[] [PMID: 25462121]
Lv, J.; Qi, L.; Yu, C.; Yang, L.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Bian, Z.; Sun, D.; Du, J.; Ge, P.; Tang, Z.; Hou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, L. China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause specific mortality: population based cohort study. BMJ, 2015, 351, h3942.
[] [PMID: 26242395]
Kindt, S.; Vos, R.; Blondeau, K.; Tack, J. Influence of intra-oesophageal capsaicin instillation on heartburn induction and oesophageal sensitivity in man. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 2009, 21(10), 1032-e82.
[] [PMID: 19566590]
Grossi, L.; Cappello, G.; Marzio, L. Effect of an acute intraluminal administration of capsaicin on oesophageal motor pattern in GORD patients with ineffective oesophageal motility. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 2006, 18(8), 632-636.
[] [PMID: 16918727]
Rodriguez-Stanley, S.; Collings, K.L.; Robinson, M.; Owen, W.; Miner, P.B., Jr The effects of capsaicin on reflux, gastric emptying and dyspepsia. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2000, 14(1), 129-134.
[] [PMID: 10632656]
Gonzalez, R.; Dunkel, R.; Koletzko, B.; Schusdziarra, V.; Allescher, H.D. Effect of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension on upper gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1998, 43(6), 1165-1171.
[] [PMID: 9635602]
Milke, P.; Diaz, A.; Valdovinos, M.A.; Moran, S. Gastroesophageal reflux in healthy subjects induced by two different species of chilli (Capsicum annum). Dig. Dis., 2006, 24(1-2), 184-188.
[] [PMID: 16699276]
Asl, S.F.; Mansour-Ghanaei, F.; Samadi, H.; Joukar, F. Evaluations of life style factors and the severity of Gastroesophageal reflux disease; a case-control study. Int. J. Mol. Epidemiol. Genet., 2015, 6(1), 27-32.
[PMID: 26417402]
Terry, P.; Lagergren, J.; Ye, W.; Wolk, A.; Nyrén, O. Inverse association between intake of cereal fiber and risk of gastric cardia cancer. Gastroenterology, 2001, 120(2), 387-391.
[] [PMID: 11159879]
Mayne, S.T.; Risch, H.A.; Dubrow, R.; Chow, W.H.; Gammon, M.D.; Vaughan, T.L.; Farrow, D.C.; Schoenberg, J.B.; Stanford, J.L.; Ahsan, H.; West, A.B.; Rotterdam, H.; Blot, W.J.; Fraumeni, J.F., Jr Nutrient intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2001, 10(10), 1055-1062.
[PMID: 11588131]
Bouin, M.; Savoye, G.; Hervé, S.; Hellot, M.F.; Denis, P.; Ducrotté, P. Does the supplementation of the formula with fibre increase the risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux during enteral nutrition? A human study. Clin. Nutr., 2001, 20(4), 307-312.
[] [PMID: 11478827]
Konturek, J.W.; Thor, P.; Lukaszyk, A.; Gabryelewicz, A.; Konturek, S.J.; Domschke, W. Endogenous nitric oxide in the control of esophageal motility in humans. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 1997, 48(2), 201-209.
[PMID: 9223025]
Manning, J.J.; Wirz, A.A.; McColl, K.E. Nitrogenous chemicals generated from acidification of saliva influence transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 2007, 42(12), 1413-1421.
[] [PMID: 17852863]
Luiking, Y.C.; Weusten, B.L.; Portincasa, P.; Van Der Meer, R.; Smout, A.J.; Akkermans, L.M. Effects of long-term oral L-arginine on esophageal motility and gallbladder dynamics in healthy humans. Am. J. Physiol., 1998, 274(6), G984-G991.
[PMID: 9696721]
Bove, M.; Lundell, L.; Ny, L.; Casselbrant, A.; Fändriks, L.; Pettersson, A.; Ruth, M. Effects of dietary nitrate on oesophageal motor function and gastro-oesophageal acid exposure in healthy volunteers and reflux patients. Digestion, 2003, 68(1), 49-56.
[] [PMID: 12949439]
Kaufman, S.E.; Kaye, M.D. Induction of gastro-oesophageal reflux by alcohol. Gut, 1978, 19(4), 336-338.
[] [PMID: 25830]
Chen, S.H.; Wang, J.W.; Li, Y.M. Is alcohol consumption associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease? J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B, 2010, 11(6), 423-428.
[] [PMID: 20506572]
Keshavarzian, A.; Zorub, O.; Sayeed, M.; Urban, G.; Sweeney, C.; Winship, D.; Fields, J. Acute ethanol inhibits calcium influxes into esophageal smooth but not striated muscle: a possible mechanism for ethanol-induced inhibition of esophageal contractility. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1994, 270(3), 1057-1062.
[PMID: 7932153]
Chari, S.; Teyssen, S.; Singer, M.V. Alcohol and gastric acid secretion in humans. Gut, 1993, 34(6), 843-847.
[] [PMID: 8314520]
Seidl, H.; Gundling, F.; Schepp, W.; Schmidt, T.; Pehl, C. Effect of low-proof alcoholic beverages on duodenogastroesophageal reflux in health and GERD. Neurogastroenterol. Motil, 2011, 23(2), 145-150. e29
[] [PMID: 20939854]
Pehl, C.; Wendl, B.; Pfeiffer, A.; Schmidt, T.; Kaess, H. Low-proof alcoholic beverages and gastroesophageal reflux. Dig. Dis. Sci., 1993, 38(1), 93-96.
[] [PMID: 8420765]
Cela, L.; Kraja, B.; Hoti, K.; Toçi, E.; Muja, H.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G. Lifestyle characteristics and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study in Albania. Gastroenterol. Res. Pract., 2013.2013936792
[] [PMID: 23509449]
Yamamichi, N.; Mochizuki, S.; Asada-Hirayama, I.; Mikami-Matsuda, R.; Shimamoto, T.; Konno-Shimizu, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, C.; Niimi, K.; Ono, S.; Kodashima, S.; Minatsuki, C.; Fujishiro, M.; Mitsushima, T.; Koike, K. Lifestyle factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a cross-sectional study of healthy 19864 adults using FSSG scores. BMC Med., 2012, 10, 45.
[] [PMID: 22554226]
Mohammed, I.; Nightingale, P.; Trudgill, N.J. Risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a community study. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005, 21(7), 821-827.
[] [PMID: 15801917]
Wang, J.H.; Luo, J.Y.; Dong, L.; Gong, J.; Tong, M. Epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a general population-based study in Xi’an of Northwest China. World J. Gastroenterol., 2004, 10(11), 1647-1651.
[] [PMID: 15162542]
Allen, M.L.; Mellow, M.H.; Robinson, M.G.; Orr, W.C. The effect of raw onions on acid reflux and reflux symptoms. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1990, 85(4), 377-380.
[PMID: 2327378]
Feldman, M.; Barnett, C. Relationships between the acidity and osmolality of popular beverages and reported postprandial heartburn. Gastroenterology, 1995, 108(1), 125-131.
[] [PMID: 7806034]
Kim, Y.K.; Moon, J.S.; Ryu, S.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, Y.S. [The relationship between the popular beverages in Korea and reported postprandial heartburn] Korean J. Gastroenterol., 2010, 55(2), 109-118.
[] [PMID: 20168057]
Shukla, A.; Meshram, M.; Gopan, A.; Ganjewar, V.; Kumar, P.; Bhatia, S.J. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects. Indian J. Gastroenterol., 2012, 31(3), 121-124.
[] [PMID: 22791463]
Johnson, T.; Gerson, L.; Hershcovici, T.; Stave, C.; Fass, R. Systematic review: the effects of carbonated beverages on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2010, 31(6), 607-614.
[] [PMID: 20055784]
Cranley, J.P.; Achkar, E.; Fleshler, B. Abnormal lower esophageal sphincter pressure responses in patients with orange juice-induced heartburn. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1986, 81(2), 104-106.
[PMID: 3946363]
Mone, I.; Kraja, B.; Bregu, A.; Duraj, V.; Sadiku, E.; Hyska, J.; Burazeri, G. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population. Dis. Esophagus, 2016, 29(7), 794-800.
[ 10.1111/dote.12384] [PMID: 26175057]
Zentilin, P.; Iiritano, E.; Dulbecco, P.; Bilardi, C.; Savarino, E.; De Conca, S.; Parodi, A.; Reglioni, S.; Vigneri, S.; Savarino, V. Normal values of 24-h ambulatory intraluminal impedance combined with pH-metry in subjects eating a Mediterranean diet. Dig. Liver Dis., 2006, 38(4), 226-232.
[] [PMID: 16480938]
Yancy, W.S., Jr; Provenzale, D.; Westman, E.C. Improvement of gastroesophageal reflux disease after initiation of a low-carbohydrate diet: five brief case reports. Altern. Ther. Health Med, 2001, 7(6), 120-116-119.
[PMID: 11712463]
Austin, G.L.; Thiny, M.T.; Westman, E.C.; Yancy, W.S., Jr; Shaheen, N.J. A very low-carbohydrate diet improves gastroesophageal reflux and its symptoms. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2006, 51(8), 1307-1312.
[] [PMID: 16871438]
Holgate, A.M.; Read, N.W. Effect of ileal infusion of intralipid on gastrointestinal transit, ileal flow rate, and carbohydrate absorption in humans after ingestion of a liquid meal. Gastroenterology, 1985, 88(4), 1005-1011.
[] [PMID: 3972221]
Lin, H.C.; Moller, N.A.; Wolinsky, M.M.; Kim, B.H.; Doty, J.E.; Meyer, J.H. Sustained slowing effect of lentils on gastric emptying of solids in humans and dogs. Gastroenterology, 1992, 102(3), 787-792.
[] [PMID: 1537516]
Piche, T.; Zerbib, F.; Varannes, S.B.; Cherbut, C.; Anini, Y.; Roze, C.; le Quellec, A.; Galmiche, J.P. Modulation by colonic fermentation of LES function in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 2000, 278(4), G578-G584.
[] [PMID: 10762612]
Caselli, M.; Zuliani, G.; Cassol, F.; Fusetti, N.; Zeni, E.; Lo Cascio, N.; Soavi, C.; Gullini, S. Test-based exclusion diets in gastro-esophageal reflux disease patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial. World J. Gastroenterol., 2014, 20(45), 17190-17195.
[] [PMID: 25493035]
Fujiwara, Y.; Machida, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Shiba, M.; Tominaga, K.; Watanabe, T.; Oshitani, N.; Higuchi, K.; Arakawa, T. Association between dinner-to-bed time and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2005, 100(12), 2633-2636.
[] [PMID: 16393212]
Esmaillzadeh, A.; Keshteli, A.H.; Feizi, A.; Zaribaf, F.; Feinle-Bisset, C.; Adibi, P. Patterns of diet-related practices and prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Neurogastroenterol. Motil., 2013, 25(10), 831-e638.
[PMID: 23895231]
El-Serag, H. The association between obesity and GERD: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2008, 53(9), 2307-2312.
[] [PMID: 18651221]
Hedley, A.A.; Ogden, C.L.; Johnson, C.L.; Carroll, M.D.; Curtin, L.R.; Flegal, K.M. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. JAMA, 2004, 291(23), 2847-2850.
[] [PMID: 15199035]
Ogden, C.L.; Carroll, M.D.; Curtin, L.R.; McDowell, M.A.; Tabak, C.J.; Flegal, K.M. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA, 2006, 295(13), 1549-1555.
[] [PMID: 16595758]
Conio, M.; Cameron, A.J.; Romero, Y.; Branch, C.D.; Schleck, C.D.; Burgart, L.J.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Melton, L.J., III; Locke, G.R. III Secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Barrett’s oesophagus in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gut, 2001, 48(3), 304-309.
[] [PMID: 11171817]
Hampel, H.; Abraham, N.S.; El-Serag, H.B. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann. Intern. Med., 2005, 143(3), 199-211.
[] [PMID: 16061918]
Eslick, G.D. Gastrointestinal symptoms and obesity: a meta-analysis. Obes. Rev., 2012, 13(5), 469-479.
[] [PMID: 22188520]
Corley, D.A.; Kubo, A. Body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 101(11), 2619-2628.
[] [PMID: 16952280]
Cai, N.; Ji, G.Z.; Fan, Z.N.; Wu, Y.F.; Zhang, F.M.; Zhao, Z.F.; Xu, W.; Liu, Z. Association between body mass index and erosive esophagitis: a meta-analysis. World J. Gastroenterol., 2012, 18(20), 2545-2553.
[] [PMID: 22654453]
Singh, S.; Sharma, A.N.; Murad, M.H.; Buttar, N.S.; El-Serag, H.B.; Katzka, D.A.; Iyer, P.G. Central adiposity is associated with increased risk of esophageal inflammation, metaplasia, and adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013, 11(11), 1399-1412.e7.
[] [PMID: 23707461]
Nilsson, M.; Johnsen, R.; Ye, W.; Hveem, K.; Lagergren, J. Obesity and estrogen as risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. JAMA, 2003, 290(1), 66-72.
[] [PMID: 12837713]
Jacobson, B.C.; Somers, S.C.; Fuchs, C.S.; Kelly, C.P.; Camargo, C.A., Jr Body-mass index and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in women. N. Engl. J. Med., 2006, 354(22), 2340-2348.
Menon, S.; Trudgill, N. Risk factors in the aetiology of hiatus hernia: a meta-analysis. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011, 23(2), 133-138.
[] [PMID: 21178776]
Pandolfino, J.E.; Kim, H.; Ghosh, S.K.; Clarke, J.O.; Zhang, Q.; Kahrilas, P.J. High-resolution manometry of the EGJ: an analysis of crural diaphragm function in GERD. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2007, 102(5), 1056-1063.
[] [PMID: 17319930]
Singh, M.; Lee, J.; Gupta, N.; Gaddam, S.; Smith, B.K.; Wani, S.B.; Sullivan, D.K.; Rastogi, A.; Bansal, A.; Donnelly, J.E.; Sharma, P. Weight loss can lead to resolution of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a prospective intervention trial. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2013, 21(2), 284-290.
[] [PMID: 23532991]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy