Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have enormous potential for application in imaging, diagnosis, and therapies in the medical field. AuNPs are renowned for their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, large surface area, and biocompatibility with body fluids. Further, AuNPs have featured prominently in new methodologies for cancer treatments, like photothermal and imaging therapies. Although AuNPs present enormous potential for application in the medical field, their instability under physiological conditions prevents further uses. However, this limitation may be overcome by associating AuNPs with biopolymers. To the best of our knowledge, a revision paper rationalizing the structure/property relationship and applications of AuNPspolysaccharide composites in the medical field has not been published yet.Methods: This manuscript discusses the most relevant aspects and state-of-art concepts surrounding the synthesis of AuNPs based on green chemistry and their association with polysaccharides that can efficiently function both as stabilizing and reducing agents of Au nanoparticles. Even more, polysaccharide devices may inhibit non-specific interactions between AuNPs and biological macromolecules, suppressing unsuitable “protein corona” formations on AuNP surfaces, thereby increasing the potential of AuNP composites of being employing as drug delivery matrices and wound-healing devices as well as in photothermal/ imaging purposes for cancer treatments and biosensors.