Objective: To observe the effect of citicoline in promoting the repair of acute peripheral nerve injury in rats.Method: A total of 64 adult SD rats were equally randomized into citicoline group and blank control group. The rat models of acute sciatic nerve injury were established by making an incision at the right thigh for sharp sciatic nerve transection. In the citicoline group, citicoline (80mg/ml) was applied for intraoperative and postoperative treatment; in the blank control group, an equal volume of isotonic saline was administered. Specimens were sampled in the first and third postoperative months for gross and microscopic examination. Electrophysiological examination of the nerve was performed in the third postoperative month, along with motor function scoring. Results: Gross and microscopic examination in the third postoperative month showed that the improvements in nerve edema and adhesion were significantly better in the citicoline group than in the control group. Electrophysiological assessment showed that the latency was shorter, the amplitude was higher, and the nerve conduction velocity was faster in citicoline group than in control group in the third postoperative month (all P<0.05). The time required for the MFS score reaching 2 and 1 was also significantly shorter in citicoline group (P<0.05 compared with control group). Conclusion: Citicoline has certain effects in rehabilitating the acute peripheral nerve injuries.