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Current Drug Abuse Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1874-4737
ISSN (Online): 1874-4745

Research Article

Midazolam Plus Haloperidol as Adjuvant Analgesics to Morphine in Opium Dependent Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Author(s): Mohammad Afzalimoghaddam, Maryam Edalatifard, Amir Nejati, Mehdi Momeni, Nader Isavi and Ehsan Karimialavijeh*

Volume 9 , Issue 2 , 2016

Page: [142 - 147] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1874473710666170106122455

Price: $58


Background: Tolerance to opioids among opium-dependent patients creates obstacles for proper pain management of these patients in the emergency department (ED). The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of intramuscular (IM) haloperidol plus midazolam on morphine analgesia among opium-dependent patients.

Methods: Opium-dependent adults who were admitted to the ED for new-onset severe pain in the limbs or abdomen (within 24 hours of admission and a pain score of over six, using a numerical rating scale [NRS]) were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A received morphine 0.05 mg/kg intravenously (IV) and a mixture of midazolam 2.5 mg and haloperidol 2.5 mg (diluted in 5 cc of distilled water, IM); group B received morphine 0.05 mg/kg IV and distilled water 5 cc, IM. Measured outcomes were related to: 1) pain intensity; 2) total doses of morphine; 3) changes in hemodynamic status and level of consciousness of patients. NRS scores (zero to 10) before and one, three and six hours following intervention, as well as total doses of morphine, were recorded.

Results: We recruited 68 males (78.16%) and 19 females (21.83%). The mean age was 38.28±6.59 years. The pain score in group A declined more rapidly over six hours than that in group B. Moreover, as compared to group B, the amount of morphine use decreased significantly in group A.

Conclusion: Based on the present data, adding haloperidol plus midazolam to morphine for pain management improved pain scores and lowered morphine consumption among opium-dependent patients.

Keywords: Analgesia, haloperidol, midazolam, morphine, opium, pain management.

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