Maintenance of genomic stability is a critical determinant of cell survival and is necessary for growth and progression of malignant cells. Interstrand crosslinking (ICL) agents, including platinum-based agents, are first-line chemotherapy treatment for many solid human cancers. In malignant cells, ICL triggers the DNA damage response (DDR). When the damage burden is high and lesions cannot be repaired, malignant cells are unable to divide and ultimately undergo cell death either through mitotic catastrophe or apoptosis. The activities of ICL agents, in particular platinum-based therapies, establish a “molecular landscape,” i.e., a pattern of DNA damage that can potentially be further exploited therapeutically with DDR-targeting agents. If the molecular landscape created by platinum-based agents could be better defined at the molecular level, a systematic, mechanistic rationale(s) could be developed for the use of DDR-targeting therapies in combination/maintenance protocols for specific, clinically advanced malignancies. New therapeutic drugs such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are examples of DDR-targeting therapies that could potentially increase the DNA damage and replication stress imposed by platinum-based agents in tumor cells and provide therapeutic benefit for patients with advanced malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the use of PARP inhibitors together with platinum-based agents is a promising therapy strategy for ovarian cancer patients with ”BRCAness”, i.e., a phenotypic characteristic of tumors that not only can involve loss-of-function mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2, but also encompasses the molecular features of BRCA-mutant tumors. On the basis of these promising results, additional mechanism-based studies focused on the use of various DDR-targeting therapies in combination with platinum-based agents should be considered. This review discusses, in general, (1) ICL agents, primarily platinum-based agents, that establish a molecular landscape that can be further exploited therapeutically; (2) multiple points of potential intervention after ICL agent–induced crosslinking that further predispose to cell death and can be incorporated into a systematic, therapeutic rationale for combination/ maintenance therapy using DDR-targeting agents; and (3) available agents that can be considered for use in combination/maintenance clinical protocols with platinum-based agents for patients with advanced malignancies.