Electrochemical sensors are very convenient devices, as they may be used in a lot of fields starting from the food industry to environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. They offer the values of simple design, reversible and reproducible measurements, as well as ensuring precise and accurate analytical information. Compared with other methods, electrochemical sensors are relatively simple as well as having low costs, which has led to intensive development, especially in the field of medicine and pharmaceuticals within the last decade. Recently, the number of publications covering the determination of aminoacids, dopamine, cholesterol, uric acid, biomarkers, vitamins and other pharmaceutical and biological compounds has significantly increased. Many possible types of such sensors and biosensors have been proposed: owing to the kind of the detection-potentiometric voltametric, amperometry, and the materials that can be used for, e.g. designing molecular architecture of the electrode/solution interface, carbon paste, carbon nanotubes, glass carbon, graphite, graphene, PVC, conductive polymers and/or nanoparticles. The active compounds which provide the complex formation with analyte (in the case of non-current techniques) or activate biomolecules electrochemically by particle recognition and selective preconcentration of analyte on the electrode surface (in the case of current techniques) are the most recently used cyclodextrins. These macrocyclic compounds have the ability to interact with a large diversity of guest particles to form complexes of the type of guest host, for example, with particles from drugs, biomolecules, through their hydrophilic outer surface and lipophilic inner cavities. Cyclodextrins have been the subject of frequent electrochemical studies that focused mostly on both their interactions in a solid state and in solution. The process of preparing of CDs modified electrodes would, consequently, open new avenues for new electrochemical sensors and, therefore, widen their use in biomedical and drug analysis.This review presents information on manufacturing techniques and performances of these sensors and biosensors. The opportunities for these sensors to carry out biomedical and pharmaceutical researches are demonstrated.
Keywords: Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical biosensors, potentiometric electrode with cyclodextrin, voltametric electrode with cyclodextrin, biosensor modified with cyclodextrin, potentiometric sensor with cyclodextrin, voltametric sensor with cyclodextrin, amperometry sensor with cyclodextrin, pharmaceutical analysis, biomedical analysis, cyclodextrins, modified electrodes.