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Current Clinical Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1574-8847
ISSN (Online): 2212-3938

Review Article

The Combination of New Immunotherapy and Radiotherapy: A N ew Potential Treatment for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Author(s): Paola C. Sacco, Paolo Maione, Cesare Guida and Cesare Gridelli*

Volume 12, Issue 1, 2017

Page: [4 - 10] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1574884711666161201123439

Price: $65

Abstract

Lung cancer is the main reason of cancer death worldwide. About 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases are diagnosed with locally advanced disease (stage III). This is a mixed population including patients who have far more extensive and bulky disease than others. Management of these patients continue to be a challenge; frequently, patients have both local recurrence and distant metastases in this stage and the prognosis is very poor with a 5-year overall survival estimated between 3% and 7% for inoperable disease. The standard treatment for these patients is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) improving survival when compared to sequential combination as shown in several metanalysis. Recently, immune-therapies, including checkpoint inhibitor, such as monoclonal antibodies against programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), have shown to enhance survival compared to chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. The integration of radiotherapy with immunotherapy is a conceptually promising strategy and several preclinical experiments have further developed the rationale for combining them. Radiotherapy has the capacity to overcome a lot of tumor immune escape mechanisms through the liberation of immunogenic private antigens showing a better local control and augmenting the immune response of systemic agents. This manuscript discusses the potential clinical interest for the combination of radiation and immunotherapy in locally advanced NSCLC.

Keywords: Immunotherapy, radiotherapy, lung cancer, combining treatment, locally advanced, NSCLC, PD-1 inhibitors, PD-L1 inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4.

Graphical Abstract

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