Castor cake is the residue in castor oil production in which many active components exist and the major one among them is ricinine. In this study, optimization of extraction of ricinine from castor cake using ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) was investigated to obtain high yield and purity by Box-Behnken design (BBD) response surface design. The optimal conditions of extraction were: ultrasound power 342 W, extracting time 5 min, microwave power 395 W, and non-significant factor of liquid/solid ratio 1:10. The crude extraction was recrystallized from ethanol. As a result, the maximum yield of ricinine was approximately 67.52%. The purity of ricinine was 99.39% which was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, the structure of purified ricinine was identified by fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the prismatic crystals morphology of ricinine. Results demonstrated that the present method combined the advantages of ultrasonic extraction and microwave extraction, which is time-saving with high extraction yield. Our results offer a suitable method for large-scale isolation of ricinine.
Keywords: Ricinine, Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction, Box-Behnken design.