Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic hyperglycemic condition with major health concern on a global scale. DM is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder stemming from defective insulin secretion and/or resistance to action of insulin. Diabetes is recognized cause of male sexual dysfunction and affects reproductive function in humans and animal models, including the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, erectile dysfunction and ejaculation disorder. Testicular disorder is characteristically marked by reductions of testicle weight, sperm count and motility, as well as changes in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium. Altered testosterone level is another characteristic of diabetic animals. Studies have demonstrated that DM increases apoptosis in germ cells and lead to the interruption of spermatogenesis, mainly by exerting an influence on Bcl-2 protein and cysteinedependent aspartate-directed proteases. DM also increases oxidative stress in testicular cells and excessive production of radical oxygen species has been demonstrated. Several strategies can be used as means of prevention and/or treatment for diverse types of damage to testicles by DM such as regular physical exercise, stress reduction and food intake of substances with antioxidant potential. A hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential diet, in particular, the seafood, can be a valuable instrument of guard against damage caused by DM, both the systemic level as testicular level. The objective of this review is to summarize evidences that study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis role of seafood in testicles morphology damages induced by diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion: The seafood plays an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis role in testicles morphology damages induced by diabetes mellitus. This relation seems to be associated with Omega-3 and carotenoids (astaxanthin) levels.