Background: Femtosecond laser provides a versatile tool for microand nanofabrication, such as periodic surface structures with a periodicity much less than the wavelength, microfluidic channels for biological uses, photonic metamaterials and optical integrated circuits for quantum applications. These facts prove that fabrication methods based on femtosecond laser have provided convenience for novel applications in the fields of high precision fabrication, experimental quantum physics, functional materials, etc.
Methods: We focus on the novel applications of the femtosecond laser high precision fabrication, such as quantum integrated circuits, biological and medical devices, multifunctional surfaces and functional periodic arrays. These applications are mostly undertook this 5 years, especially the quantum integrated circuits which were studied since 2013. Moreover, case studies were shown to illustrate the representative results and study methods.
Results: We have reviewed 128 papers that are associated with the novel applications and case studies. Approximate 50% papers introduced the novel applications in the fields of quantum integrated circuits, biological and medical devices, multifunctional surfaces and functional periodic arrays. Other papers presented illustrated the case studies including femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer, characterization of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures and results led by femtosecond vortex beam generated by a q-plate.
Conclusion: The applications of the technology of the femtosecond laser direct writing waveguides in the fields of integrated quantum optics, photonic metamaterials, biological and medical circuits will surely pave a new way to fabricate full-size quantum computer and provide enormous kinds of biomimetic and medical finer devices. These state-of-the-art microdevices will provide much more convenience than before and even probably overturn the structure of the modern industry society. With the development of the relative technologies, femtosecond laser will prominently enhance the level of the fabrication in particular fields.