The calcium binding protein S100B has attracted great attention as a biomarker for a variety of diseases. S100B is mainly expressed in glial cells and functions through intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways. The biological roles of S100B have been closely associated with its concentrations and its physiological states. The released S100B can bind to the receptor of advanced glycation end products and induce the initiation of multiple cell signaling transductions. The regulation of S100B bioactivities has been suggested through phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt, p53, mitogen-activated protein kinases, transcriptional factors including nuclear factor-kappaB, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The levels of S100B in the blood may function to predict the progress or the prognosis of many kinds of diseases, such as cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, motor neuron diseases, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, depression, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, cancer, and infectious diseases. Given that the activity of S100B has been implicated in the pathological process of these diseases, S100B should not be simply regarded as a biomarker, it may also function as therapeutic target for these diseases. Further elucidation of the roles of S100B may formulate innovative therapeutic strategies for multiple diseases.