In the recent years we have been observing an increased incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. This leads to a more frequent acute complication of type 1 diabetes among children with hyperglycemia. The most common of these is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), while cerebral edema is the most dangerous. In children with DKA, cerebral edema most often presents with clinical symptoms but may also appear in the so-called “subclinical” form. That is why the search continues for new methods of assessing and monitoring cerebral edema in the course of DKA treatment. Ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (US ONSD) assessment is performed in various clinical scenarios when cerebral edema is suspected. It is most often performed in adult patients but increasingly often in children. US ONSD assessment is useful in the treatment of DKA in children with type 1 diabetes. This manuscript provides an overview of research results available in PubMed and other available databases on the course of treatment of DKA in children with type 1 diabetes.