Background: Over the years, numerous studies have been carried out demonstrating the role of antibodies in HIV control leading to the development of antibody-based therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. Objective: The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the role of antibodies in the prevention and control of HIV infection and the strategies against HIV that have been designed based on this information. Results: Passive transfer of anti-HIV antibodies in animal models has proven the efficacy of certain antibodies in the prevention and treatment of infection. The capacity of antibodies to control the virus was first attributed to their neutralizing capacity. However, we now know that there are other Fc-mediated antibody activities associated with virus protection. When it comes to better understanding protection against HIV, we ought to pay particular attention to mucosal immune responses. The evidence accumulated so far indicates that an effective vaccine against HIV should generate both mucosal IgAs and systemic IgGs. Due to the problematic induction of protective anti-HIV antibodies, several groups have developed alternative approaches based on antibody delivery via gene therapy vectors. Experiments in animal models with these vectors have shown impressive protection levels and this strategy is now being clinically trialed. Conclusion: Taking into account all the information included in this review, it seems evident that anti-HIV-1 antibodies play an important role in virus control and prevention. This review aims to give an overview of the strategies used and the advances in antibody-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against HIV-1.