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Current Cardiology Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-403X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6557

Review Article

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: What we have Learned in the Last 25 Years? (A Comparative Literature Review)

Author(s): Samir M. Said, Erol Saygili, Obaida R. Rana, Conrad Genz, Judit Hahn, Rajen Bali, Soumya Varshney, Khaled Albouaini, Roland Prondzinsky and Ruediger C. Braun-Dullaeus

Volume 12, Issue 4, 2016

Page: [297 - 303] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1573403X12666160211125601

open access plus


We performed a comparative literature review, to elucidate the major features of the Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TCM) collected in last 25 years.

TCM is characterized by left- or biventricular apical ballooning with a clinical presentation, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and biomarker profils similar to those seen in acute myocardial infarction. Epidemiological studies have shown that TCM is more common in postmenopausal women; however exact figures are not available. The underlying aetiology is still largely undetermined. Elevated catecholamine levels, lack of estrogen, disturbed myocardial fatty acid metabolism and plaque rupture with spontaneous thrombolysis are potentially discussed mechanisms responsible for inducing a prolonged stunned myocardium. Strong emotional or physical stress is the most frequently described trigger in the literature. Therapy recommendations include appropriate antiplatelet treatment, β-blockers and ACE inhibitors. The abnormal kinetics usually resolve or improve within a month and carry a favorable prognosis in most cases. However, all the suspected complications of an acute myocardial infarction, including cardiogenic shock or lethal arrhythmias, may still occur.

Keywords: Acute left ventricular apical ballooning, ampulla cardiomyopathy, broken heart syndrome, stress-related cardiomyopathy, takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

Graphical Abstract

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