Background: Within a few years of diagnosis, patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) develop hypertension. It has been hypothesized that both are part of metabolic syndrome. However, studies on diabetic patients have been undertaken while they are on treatment for diabetes. Thus, the results of these studies and inference drawn thereon may not be due to the diabetic process per se but may also be due to the medications.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was carried out on PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases and articles published between January 1970 to June 2015 were reviewed.
Results: Sulfonylureas due to their action on SUR1 in pituitary gland may release growth hormone and anti-diuretic hormone; action on SUR2B acting upon smooth muscle may interfere with vasodilatation, thereby causing hypertension.
Conclusions: Sulfonylureas may cause hypertension by their extra-pancreatic effects, further studies are needed to validate this hypothesis.