Network pharmacology is an emerging technique, which integrates systems biology and computational biology to study multi-component and multi-targeted formulations. Ayurveda, the traditional system of Indian medicine, uses intelligent formulations; however, their scientific rationale and mechanisms remain largely unexplored. This paper presents the potential of network pharmacology to understand the rationale of a commonly used Ayurveda formulation known as Triphala. We have developed pharmacology networks of Triphala based on the information gathered from different databases and using the software Cytoscape. The networks depict the interaction of bioactives with molecular targets and their relation with diseases, especially cancer. The network pharmacology analysis of Triphala has offered new relationships among bioactives, targets and putative applications of cancer etiology. This pioneering effort might open new possibilities to know pharmacodynamics of Ayurvedic drugs like Triphala and also help in the discovery of new leads and targets for various diseases.