It is well established that aging is a significant risk factor for homeostatic imbalance, decline in vascular regenerative capacity and development of vascular disease with progressive organ dysfunction. Over the past decade therapeutic developments have improved the prognosis for those with vascular disease, mortality rates have nevertheless remained actually unchanged. Clearly, there is a need for alternative strategies for the treatment of vascular disease. Adipose tissue and bone marrow have been shown to contain adult mesenchymal stem cells that have therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. In vivo experiments suggest that these cells are capable of replacing ischemic damaged tissues. The potential use of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis has been proposed as an alternative treatment solutions for age-related vascular disease. This review outlines the current knowledge about adipose tissue and bone marrow as a sources of stem and progenitor cells, these cells contribution to ischemic damaged tissues regenerative processes and factors that may affect their decreased function in aging individuals. Moreover, it was described the cell-based therapeutic strategies that are currently being tested in clinical trials as well as clinical outcomes demonstrated after cell transplantation and emphasize possible mechanisms counteracting pathophysiological events of ischemia.
Keywords: Age-related vascular disease, adipose tissue, adipose tissue-derived stem cells, bone marrow, bone marrow mononuclear cells, growth factors, ischemic tissues regeneration, therapeutic angiogenesis.