Chronic hyperglycemia and its associated metabolic products are key factors responsible for the development and progression of diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Endocrinologists are tasked with detection and management of early CKD before patients need referral to a nephrologist for advanced CKD or dialysis evaluation. Primary care physicians are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of managing hyperglycemia to prevent or delay progression of CKD. Glycemic control is an integral part of preventing or slowing the advancement of CKD in patients with diabetes; however, not all glucose-lowering agents are suitable for this patient population. The availability of the latest information on treatment options may enable physicians to thwart advancement of serious renal complication in patients suffering from diabetes. This review presents clinical data that shed light on the risk/benefit profiles of three relatively new antidiabetes drug classes, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, particularly for patients with diabetic CKD, and summarizes the effects of these therapies on renal outcomes and glycemic control for endocrinologists and primary care physicians. Current recommendations for screening and diagnosis of CKD in patients with diabetes are also discussed.