The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen in recent decades, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in this population. Several studies have shown that, in clinical practice, identifying diabetic patients at high risk for CVD is essential, since these patients benefit from aggressive strategies to achieve a greater risk reduction. In recent years, new markers of CV risk have been added to the list of those already known. These new emerging markers, such as inflammatory, bone and hormonal markers, act as new indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis and CV mortality. Therefore, we reviewed the ongoing scientific research on these new biomarkers and discuss their clinical impact on the identification of T2DM patients at high CV risk.