Oxidative stress is a condition characterized by the imbalance between the production of reactive species (RS) or free radicals and their neutralization by the antioxidant defenses, leading to the accumulation of RS and their derived metabolites, with changes in the redox status of the cell. These RS can act on biological components and induce the oxidative and nitrosative reactions on lipids, proteins, and DNA. In this context, a wide variety of chronic diseases present oxidative stress as a part of the pathogenesis, including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The relationship between oxidative stress and HIV-1 infection lies in the fact that the RS species are important components of the innate immune response, and their derived metabolites and reactions participate in several events of the adaptative immune response. On the other hand, studies have shown specific roles for oxidative-driven events in both the host immunity and the virus biology. Undoubtedly, the occurrence of oxidative stress in HIV-1-infected patients has been implicated in disease progression, as well as in developing other secondary disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. This review aims to characterize the redox-driven events in the HIV-1 infection and their clinical implications in the disease features.