Addressing contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections world-wide, including HIV-1, is imperative. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, and its impact on women, has prompted the investigation of multipurpose technologies, specifically, prevention strategies to protect against unwanted pregnancy and prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Current research in multipurpose technologies is targeted to develop a discrete and long acting device, highly effective in preventing both HIV and unintended pregnancy. Significant advances in research development in contraception devices, that also prevent STDs, have occurred in the last decade. There are currently no approved MPTs on the market; however a number of fixed dose drug combination medications targeted to treat a single indication exist. These combined medications have been shown to improve ease of use, patient compliance, and outcomes. Multipurpose technologies have the potential to provide dual therapies, each with its own selected properties and mechanism of action. The need for MPTs conceptually has been known since the early 1990s, but little to no progress has been made until recently. This section will focus on need for MPTs in the face of the HIV pandemic, and the need for highly effective contraception in HIV positive women.