Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was the first malignancy for which immunotherapy, in the form of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), was integrated into the standard of care. Allo-HSCT however is an imperfect therapy associated with significant morbidity and mortality while offering only incomplete prevention of AML clinical relapse. These limitations have motivated the search for AML-related antigens that might be used as more specific and effective targets of immunotherapy. While historically such investigations have focused on protein targets expressed uniquely in AML or at significantly higher levels than in normal tissues, this article will review recent discoveries which have identified a novel selection of potential antigen targets for AML immunotherapy, such as non-protein targets including lipids and carbohydrates, neo-antigens created from genetic somatic mutations or altered splicing and post-translational modification of protein targets, together with innovative ways to target overexpressed protein targets presented by cell surface peptide-MHC complexes. These novel antigens represent promising candidates for further development as targets of AML immunotherapy.