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Current Cardiology Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-403X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6557

Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the United States

Author(s): Garth Graham

Volume 11, Issue 3, 2015

Page: [238 - 245] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573403X11666141122220003

Price: $65


This is a comprehensive narrative review of the literature on the current science and evidence of population-level differences in risk factors for heart disease among different racial and ethnic population in the United States (U.S.). It begins by discussing the importance of population-level risk assessment of heart disease in light of the growth rate of specific minority populations in the U.S. It describes the population-level dynamics for racial and ethnic minorities: a higher overall prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease that are unrecognized and therefore not treated, which increases their likelihood of experiencing adverse outcome and, therefore, potentially higher morbidity and mortality. It discusses the rate of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in minority communities. Minority patients with ACS are at greater risk of myocardial infarction (MI), rehospitalization, and death from ACS. They also are less likely than non-minority patients to receive potentially beneficial treatments such as angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. This paper looks at the data surrounding the increased rate of heart disease in racial and ethnic minorities, where the risk is related to the prevalence of comorbidities with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, which, in combination with environmental factors, may largely explain CHF disparity. The conclusion is that it is essential that healthcare providers understand these various communities, including nuances in disease presentation, risk factors, and treatment among different racial and ethnic groups. Awareness of these communities’ attributes, as well as differences in incidence, risk factor burdens, prognosis and treatment are necessary to mitigate racial and ethnic disparities in heart disease.

Keywords: Acute coronary, syndrome heart disease, health disparities, hypertension.

Graphical Abstract
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