Protein kinases (PKs) mediate the reversible conversion of substrate proteins to phosphorylated forms, a key process in controlling intracellular signaling transduction cascades. Pluripotency is, among others, characterized by specifically expressed PKs forming a highly interconnected regulatory network that culminates in a finely-balanced molecular switch. Current high-throughput phosphoproteomic approaches have shed light on the specific regulatory PKs and their function in controlling pluripotent states. Pluripotent cell-derived endothelial and hematopoietic developments represent an example of the importance of pluripotency in cancer therapeutics and organ regeneration. This review attempts to provide the hitherto known kinome profile and the individual characterization of PK-related pathways that regulate pluripotency. Elucidating the underlying intrinsic and extrinsic signals may improve our understanding of the different pluripotent states, the maintenance or induction of pluripotency, and the ability to tailor lineage differentiation, with a particular focus on endothelial cell differentiation for anti-cancer treatment, cell-based tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine strategies.
Keywords: Endothelial cells, phosphorylation, pluripotency, protein kinases, signaling pathways, stem cell.