Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans; it represents a major public health problem. This chronic disease is characterized by increase in bone fracture due to: reduced bone mass, deterioration of micro architectural and decreased bone strength, bone fragility; and bone mineral density 2.5 or more standard deviations below the normal mean. Secondary osteoporosis is a common cause of osteoporosis, and there are many underlying risk factors for osteoporosis. Chronic alcohol abuse is one of the modifiable risk factors in osteoporosis. There is evidence of correlation between chronic alcohol abuse and low bone mass. Alcohol is directly toxic to the bone; with increased incidence of fractures and complications. Although there is a paucity of studies regarding alcohol induced osteoporosis therapy, it can be classified into antiresorptive therapy and anabolic therapy. Bisphosphonates have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant to prevent bone damage associated with alcohol use while parathyroid hormone increased bone mineralization as well as bone formation in alcohol treated rats. Vitamin D supplementation could prevent bone toxicity in chronic drinkers. This review discussed the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteoporosis and the agents available for its treatment. Other potential therapies are also discussed.
Keywords: Alcohol-induced, bone mineral density, oxidative stress, secondary osteoporosis.