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Current Molecular Medicine

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1566-5240
ISSN (Online): 1875-5666

Research Article

Molecular Diagnosis in Autoimmune Skin Blistering Conditions

Author(s): J.V. Otten, T. Hashimoto, M. Hertl, A.S. Payne and C. Sitaru

Volume 14, Issue 1, 2014

Page: [69 - 95] Pages: 27

DOI: 10.2174/15665240113136660079

open access plus

Abstract

Blister formation in skin and mucous membranes results from a loss of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion and is a common outcome of pathological events in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune and genetic diseases, viral and bacterial infections, or injury by physical and chemical factors. Autoantibodies against structural components maintaining cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion induce tissue damage in autoimmune blistering diseases. Detection of these autoantibodies either tissue-bound or circulating in serum is essential to diagnose the autoimmune nature of disease. Various immunofluorescence methods as well as molecular immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, belong to the modern diagnostic algorithms for these disorders. There is still a considerable need to increase awareness of the rare autoimmune blistering diseases, which often show a severe, chronic-relapsing course, among physicians and the public. This review article describes the immunopathological features of autoimmune bullous diseases and the molecular immunoassays currently available for their diagnosis and monitoring.

Keywords: Autoantibodies, autoantigens, basement membrane, desmosome, ELISA, extracellular matrix, hemidesmosome, immunoassay, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy.

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