Several medical conditions sharing similar signs and symptoms may be related to immune adjuvants. These conditions described as ASIA (Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants), include a condition characterized by macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) assessing long-term persistence of vaccine derived-alum adjuvants into macrophages at sites of previous immunization. Despite increasing data describing clinical manifestations of ASIA have been reported, biological markers are particularly lacking for their characterization and follow up. We report an extensive cytokine screening performed in serum from 44 MMF patients compared both to sex and age matched healthy controls and to patients with various types of inflammatory neuromuscular diseases. Thirty cytokines were quantified using combination of Luminex® technology and ELISA. There was significant mean increase of serum levels of the monocytechemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2/MCP-1) in MMF patients compared to healthy subjects. MMF patients showed no elevation of other cytokines. This contrasted with inflammatory patients in whom CCL2/MCP-1 serum levels were unchanged, whereas several other inflammatory cytokines were elevated (IL1β, IL5 and CCL3/MIP1α). These results suggest that CCL2 may represent a biological marker relevant to the pathophysiology of MMF rather than a non specific inflammatory marker and that it should be checked in the other syndromes constitutive of ASIA.