Non-coding microRNAs are involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms underlying response of cancer cells to stress leading to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy. Many molecular layers are implicated in such cellular response including epigenetic regulation of transcription, RNA processing, metabolism, signaling. The molecular interrelationship between tumor protein (TP)-p53 family members and specific microRNAs is a key functional network supporting tumor cell response to chemotherapy and potentially playing a decisive role in chemoresistance of human epithelial cancers. TP63 was shown to modulate the expression of numerous microRNAs involved in regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence, “stemness” and skin maintenance, epithelial/ mesenchymal transition, and tumorigenesis in several types of epithelial cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, gastric cancer, bladder cancer, and breast tumors), as well as in chemoresistance of cancer cells. TP63/microRNA network was shown to be involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism and epigenetic transcriptional regulation, thereby providing the groundwork for novel chemotherapeutic venues.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Autophagy, Cell cycle arrest, Cell metabolism, Chemoresistance, Epigenetics, microRNA, TP63.