Advanced age is associated with an increased incidence of immune and degenerative disorders, mediated by metabolic changes, dysregulation of proinflammatory signals, and apoptosis. Concurrently, there is a progressive decline in self-recognition. Investigations on biologic functions of transferrin (Tf) other than iron transport showed that Tf has a profound cytoprotective (anti-apoptotic) effect on lympho-hematopoietic cells and the thymus, and interferes with stressinduced signals. Tf protects hepatocytes against Fas-induced cell death by reducing BID cleavage, inhibiting caspase-3 and -9 activation and up-regulating survival signals such as Bcl-xL. The involvement in the regulation of alloreactivity and apoptosis suggests that Tf participates in the maintenance of “self-identity” mechanisms, which are tightly linked to the capacity of the immune system to recognize and react against any noxious agent. Some of the disorders associated with aging are thought to be related to thymic involution, reflecting alterations in the interplay of neural, endocrine and immune factors. We established a murine model of thymic involution induced by stereotactically placed electrolytic lesions in the anterior hypothalamic area. The events observed in this model mimic those observed during senescence including thymus involution, i.e. enhanced glucocorticoid reaction to distress, and obesity. The described properties of Tf can be exploited to modify immune responses and provide cytoprotection against pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic signals when neuroimmunomodulatory mechanisms are impaired, as is the case with aging.