In the recent years, the existence of cardiac regeneration in mammalian models and even humans has been confirmed in several, carefully designed and executed studies. However, the intrinsic rate of cardiomyocyte renewal is not sufficient to replenish the large number of cells lost after a major injury in the heart, such as myocardial infarction. Therefore, exogenously administered cells with progenitor properties have been used in order to augment this process. From the several candidate cell populations, cardiac derived progenitor cells appear particularly attractive for this purpose, based on data from many experimental studies but also preliminary clinical applications. Cardiosphere-derived cells are a mixed cell population that has shown great potential in stimulating endogenous mechanisms of cardiac repair and attenuating adverse remodeling of the heart. In the present review, we discuss in detail the existing evidence regarding the therapeutic role of cardiosphere-derived progenitor cell administration in the post-myocardial infarction setting. Proof-of-concept studies in rodents, as well as more clinically relevant experiments in large animal models, have provided consistent results regarding the potential of these cells to improve cardiac structure and function after myocardial infarction. Existing data about the underlying mechanisms that are implicated in myocardial regeneration triggered by these cells are presented, as well as preliminary data from clinical applications and future perspectives of this novel therapeutic option.