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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

The µ Opioid Receptor and Ligands Acting at the µ Opioid Receptor, as Therapeutics and Potential Therapeutics

Author(s): Mariana Spetea, Muhammad Faheem Asim, Gerhard Wolber and Helmut Schmidhammer

Volume 19, Issue 42, 2013

Page: [7415 - 7434] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/13816128113199990362

Abstract

Although the µ opioid receptor (MOR) was pharmacologically and biochemically identified in binding studies forty years ago, its structure, function, and true complexity only have emerged after its cloning in 1993. Continuous efforts from many laboratories have greatly advanced our understanding of MORs, ranging from their anatomic distribution to cellular and molecular mechanisms, and from cell lines to in vivo systems. The MOR is recognized as the main target for effective pain relief, but its involvement in many other physiological functions has also been recognized. This review provides a synopsis on the history of research on MORs and ligands acting at the MOR with the focus on their clinical and potential use as therapeutic drugs, or as valuable research tools. Since the elucidation of the chemical structure of morphine and the characterization of endogenous opioid peptides, research has stimulated the development of new generations of MOR ligands with distinct pharmacological profiles (agonist, antagonist, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist) or site of action (central/peripheral). Discovery of therapeutically useful morphine-like drugs and innovative drugs with new scaffolds, with several outstanding representatives, is discussed. Extensive efforts on modifications of endogenous peptides to attain stable and MOR selective analogs are overviewed with stimulating results for the development of peptide-based pharmaceuticals. With pharmacophore modeling as an important tool in drug discovery, application of modern computational methodologies for the development of morphinans as new MOR ligands is described. Moreover, the crystal structure of the MOR available today will enable the application of structurebased approaches to design better drugs for the management of pain, addiction and other human diseases, where MORs play a key role.

Keywords: µ Opioid receptor, pain, agonist, antagonist, morphine, morphinans, pharmacophore.


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